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PART II. Chapter 1: Historical insidents that are depicted in the Scenario

Art and Armenian Propaganda: Ararat as a Case Study


The future of the young American nation that declared its independency towards the end of the 18th century lied in trade. The country’s trade could only develop by following three routes; the Baltic, Middle East and the Far East. However, they had to face some obstacles on these routes, as the sailors say some “mines”. America needed a fleet to get rid of them. Actually, the fleet was the “cold and harsh” part of the job. They also needed a humane mechanism. While the cost of a navy division that would dwell in the Mediterranean was 80.000 dollars per year, the cost of a missionary family would be less than 1000 dollars.[3]

America’s relation with the Ottoman Empire originates from this young countries need for a profitable trade. But it did not stay limited to that. In the first half of the 19th century lead by traders; seamen, missionaries, inventors, engineers, craftsmen, men of science, adventurers, and even loafers found themselves on the way to Levant. The ones that were most influential were obviously the missionaries. Their influence was not limited to America’s economic interests but also formations that still can be felt in the region.[4]

The independence of America, its idea of protecting itself from Europe’s imperialist mission, and its aim of keeping itself away from the world politics in accordance with its principle “America belongs to the Americans” naturally resulted in Europe staying away from the country. However, for America to stay indifferent to the division of the world by the imperialist powers of Europe, as a country that aimed to expand, would have been a great mistake. In the same context, to enter the world arena as an imperial power would mean to overrule the Monroe Doctrine. There was only one solution to this complicated situation and that was the American Protestant missionary.[5]

At first, meaning in 1797, 1804 and 1811 while America saw the Ottoman Empire only as a trade market, later when she saw how convenient the environment was, she changed her attitude and started a new era and began conducting missionary activities.

The missionaries and their activities of the American Protestant Church formed the base of the Armenian propaganda in this country. With the arrival of the first American tradesmen and especially the constant usage of the Boston and ?zmir ports and them starting to use Turkish Armenian brokers an Armenian bourgeoisie came in to being both in Boston and ?zmir. With America founding its extrovert missionary organization “American Board of Commissionaires for foreign Missions” (ABCFM) in Boston, in 18106 and with it including Turkey in its program, and sending the first missionary group to Turkey, starting from 1920 furthermore, due to the Protestant church choosing the Armenians as its target, resulted in the development of the Armenian Movement both in Turkey and in America. It could be said, that America with its ABCFM7 was one of the aspects that planted the Armenian problem in Turkey. Justin Mc McCarthy, an American historian emphasized that with these schools, which were out of the control of the Ottoman government, the Armenian nationalism evolved and took rise.[8]

ABCFM’s Activities in Turkey

ABCFM founded its first center in Anatolia, in 1820, in Izmir. Following this, centers were opened in 1823 Beirut, 1831 in Istanbul, three years later 1835 in Trabzon, four years later 1839 in Erzurum. These were followed by 1847 Antep, 1851 Sivas and 1852 Adana and Merzifon. When it was 1853 by opening a center in Diyarbak?r. Centers started to increase in number. 1854 Mara?, Kayseri and Urfa, 1855 harput, 1859 Tarsus and 1872 Van. The opening of different branches followed these. The most important research they conducted was in the Dicle-F?rat basin. for them, this part of Anatolia, which they knew very little about, was dangerous. Between the years 1839-1845 by blending with the people of the above mentioned regions (Van, Diyarbak?r, Harput, Mardin, Musul etc.). They tried to learn about their traditions and beliefs. For example Dr Gant, by getting into close relations with the Kurdish Sheiks and Aghas helped forming a foundation for the others that would follow him. he died while conducting a research among the Turks, Kurds and Nasturi’s. Grant also had proposed to send specially trained missionaries among the Kurds in the East.[9]

The first Protestant missionary to ever set foot on Ottoman lands was a priest that was sent to Egypt in 1815, whom was a member of the English Church of Missionary Society. This priest was followed by two American missionaries whom arrived in Izmir on Jan., 15, 1920; Pliny Fisk and Levi Pearson. They tried to find out what could be done. In this context it is important to take a look at the letter Goodel and Dwight wrote together in 1832:[10]

“The question is which road to choose while trying to do the best for the Armenians interest. To start from the right point we should open primary schools for them.... Influencing a child is much more easier than influencing an adult.... Besides most of them cannot read and almost half of them cannot write... What would happen if we give these people, that cannot tell a part two letters the book of the Lord? There is no need to expand; we should start from schools.”

It is possible to see the same idea in the letter written by Goodell, Schauffler and Dwight dated May 8, 1897:[12]

“The entire Armenia nation is in the wakening of how important education is. Now they are establishing a big collage or university in Üsküdar. Although they have the building and the money they are in need of men. They will stay devoted to Oahnnes in order to give form and life to this attempt and to us. We need to teach their teachers and train their trainers."[13]

An American author Mark Nalkasian wrote that the representatives of ABCFM came to the Ottoman Empire in the 1820s and first tried to convert the Muslims to Christianity. When they could not succeed, they turned to the Armenians.[14]

The secretary of the Boston Center of the American Missionary Organization, Judson Smith in 1893 says;

“Thanks to God, from the shores of Çanakkale and the Mediterranean to the Russian border and from the Black Sea to Syria we were able to reach almost every city and village.”

They really had reached all the Armenian villages and furthermore each Armenian household. No other organization was able to do this in Turkey. Activities of the British and French missionaries had stayed limited. They could not expand outside some villages or missionary stations. Armenian Protestant Missionaries proudly wrote about being number one in effectiveness and expansion of their studies and leaving all the other organizations behind.[15]

In the Barlett report, which summarizes the American Boards activities, starts with

“As far as missionaries activities go, Turkey is the key to Asia.”[16]

ABCFM’s work was so incredible that by the year 1893 they opened 624 schools and 436 sanctuaries[17] in Turkey. 1317 missionaries were working in this country at that date an until 1893 three million Bibles and for million different types of books were distributed in Turkey. The money that was spent by ABCFM until 1893 was more than 10 million dollars.[18] More than half of this money was collected from American Citizens. Judson Smith, secretary of the American Missionary Organization, after enumerating some of these number said;

“These noble services made the Armenians fell overwhelmed with gratitude, their hearts tied to the missionaries with steel ropes, from now on the Armenian nation is like candle wax in the hands of their protectors and patrons.”

By saying so, he showed how strongly the Armenians were connected to them.[19]

Besides the Armenians devotion to America, after spending so much time, America naturally had a special interest in them. By taking in this in to consideration, one can clearly understand the feelings of Dr. Clarence Ussher while he was writing his journal. The same journal that Atom Egoyan took as a foundation to write his scenario.

Atom Egoyan used Van as the setting his scenario, it being the city that Dr Ussher worked. Below is a short analysis of the Armenian movement in Van.


A. THE 1st VAN REVOLT (1896)

Before 1914, the Armenian movement in Van, has a history that goes back 60-7 0 years. In 1857 a printing house was established at the Varrak Monastery, and they started to print books according to the Armenian demands and newspapers such as “Vaspurgan” and “Van Kartal?” (The Van Eagle) by doing so they were getting prepared for the revolt.20 In the 1870s and 1880s they established organizations such as “?ttihat and Nalas”, “Araratl?” (The One from Ararat), and “Karahaç” (Black Cross).[21] From this aspect, the Armenian Revolt Committees in Van were stranger and more organized and strong compared to other areas.

The “?ttihat and Nalas” that was established in Van in 1872 followed a Russian line. By doing so it became a strong political group with the support coming from Russia and constantly provoked the Armenians in Van and its region to revolt.[22]

In the same year the “Liberation Union Association” was established in order to speed up the provocation movements and to pull the Armenians towards the Russian Army and against the Ottoman.[23]

In 1878[24] again in Van the “Black Cross Society” was established known as the “Black Cross”. The name comes from the organization drawing a cross over the names of the members that cannot keep a secret and by doing so convicting those to death. The ones that joined the organization went under a big responsibility. The leaders were the Russian Armenians. In general these organizations were arranged by Dr. Navarstyon who came from Russia. Their activities were managed from several different divisions. One of them was Tbilisi. They sent the money that was needed for weapons and ammunitions.[25] The preparations of the first Van revolt that began in June 1896 took a long time as described above.

The Armenian committees were organized to destroy the Turks and get hold of the region. Their constant communication with the outside powers helped them procure the weapons they needed. Before the revolt the Van Consul Captain Clayton in his report dated Oct. 12, 1890 wrote that he had information about the Russian Armenians organizing associations in order to send weapons to the Turkish Armenians and provided spy’s for their distribution. In his report dated Nov. 1890 he wrote that, he had learned from the American Missionary that the Armenians were getting prepared for a revolt and the weapons that were coming from Russia were being distributed in Van.[26]

General Mayewski, whom was the Consul in Van reported that the revolutionists in Van, in order to attract the attention of Europe, committed some political murders, were getting protection money from some rich Armenians, the young ones were doing military training in the winter of 1895-96 and they had committed massacres in Van and its region with the coming of spring.[27]

The British Council General Williams, in his report wrote that the Armenians had opened fire on the Turkish soldiers whom were on patrol, in the beginning of June 1896, and they had been warned due of their actions.[28]

The incidents that started on June 3, took speed on June 4 and on June 6, 1896 Friday, early in the morning it reached a very high level.

The British Consul Williams in his report writes about the June 6, incidents as follows;

“On June 6 I saw two points that were being defended by the revolutionists. I was surprised by the methods they were using They told us that they would endure for ten days until support would arrive from Iran, Among them were American, Russian and Bulgarian nationals. They were about 600 in number.”[29]

The clashes intensified by June 8, continued between June 10-16 with the Armenians hit and run tactics and shooting at the Turks from loopholes.

While all this was going on the government stayed calm and asked the Armenians to surrender by applying to the consulates in Van. They told them if the Armenian representatives and the revolutionists would surrender they would be kept in the Van castle. Furthermore until a decision was made they would be kept under the control of the foreign representatives. The Van Mayor Naz?m Pasha, Saadettin Pasha, ?emsettin Pasha and deputy major to Van C. Melik offered their mediation for a pardon. The consuls found the governments attitude moderate and conciliatory and reached a mutual decision about the Armenians giving up their weapons and informed the bandits with a letter.[30]

Saadettin Pasha in his report dated July 23, 1896 informed the government; contrary to their approach the revolutionists did not give up their weapons and follow the advices.[31]

The revolt restarted on Sept 10, 1986[32] and the clashes continued with the Armenian revolutionists who took shelter in houses, between Sept. 14-15.

This revolt that lasted for almost five mounts was largely suppressed by the end of Oct. However, it cannot be said it was completely over because it continued in 1897.ln the telegram that was send to foreign representatives by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs dated August 10,1897 it was written:

“On the seventh The Armenian Bandits attacked the Hayd?ratl? and Mazkiri tribes and performed violent behavior. They killed 116 women and children. The rebels that were trailed fled to Iran. Necessary precautions are taken in the border regions”.[33]

The Armenians that could not get what they expected from the 1st revolt started a propaganda saying that ?emsi Pasha tortured them.[34]

THE 2nd VAN REVOLT (1915)

The Ottoman Empire entered the World War I as Germany’s ally and declared mobilization on August 3, 1914. About 27 days after the declaration, on August 30,1914, Armenians from Zeytun by refusing to fight under the Ottoman flag, formed the “Zeytunlu Fedai AlayI” under the command of their own officers started a revolt.[35]

The Ottoman government was informed about Russians and Armenians becoming closer before entering the war. A German lieutenant colonel Guse had written that it was known that The Turkish Armenians did not have good intentions about Turkey, and in the case of a Russian advance they would turn these intention in to action and would revolt.[36] There was an order released by the 3rd Army Headquarters dated July 19, 1914, stating the precautions that would be taken to prevent the provocations of the Russian made by using the Caucasus Armenians.[37] In the order it was said that, the Russian with the help of the Caucasus Armenians of Caucasus were organizing the Turkish Armenians by saying that they would give the land they would occupy to them and guarantee their independence. Furthermore, they were smuggling weapons in the Armenian villages and they had learned that the son of a Russian general Loris Melikof had gone to the region with this intention and the necessary precaution should be taken.[38]

In a message sent to the 3rd Army headquarters from the Commander in Chief, it was written that they had received information about the Armenians in Van exchanging information with the Russians.[39]

Deputy Major of Erzurum, Cemil Bey, sent a similar telegram to the 3rd Army headquarters.[40] In the telegram it was written “the Russian government really trusted the Caucasus Armenians and they would try to interfere in our internal affairs by convincing them to join their side and start a revolt in eastern Anatolia, whenever they pleased”.[41]

In a coded telegram that was sent to the 3rd Army Headquarter, dated Sept. 18, 1914, by the mayor of Bitlis Mustafa Bey it was written “After the mobilization the Armenians of the region decided to join the Armenians of Caucasus and help ease the Russian Army’s campaign according to the order coming from their committee.[42]

In a message that was sent to the Ministry of Internal Affairs by the Beyaz?t Mutasarnf? on, Oct., 14 1914, it was said that the Armenian volunteers of Van, Mu?, Bitlis and Kars has gathered on Sept. 26, and started to get prepared for an attack, and even some of them had gone to Van.[43]

In November the Ottoman Empire had entered war.

On Nov. 29, 1914, commander of the gendarme division Naz?m Bey informed the headquarters that there was going to be a big revolt in Van, according to the information they had got from two spies they caught. In his telegram:

“It has been understood from the testimony of the two spies we caught that there will be a big revolt in and around Van these days. The situation here confirms this”[44] and also he informed them if something of the kind occurred they would be in a very bad position.[45] The following day the major of Van, Cevdet Bey, sent a telegram in order o inform them that the Russian Army was advancing from Kontur towards Van and they were trying to stop the Armenians of starting of something.[46] In another telegram that was sent from Van dated Dec. 4, 1914 by Commander of Gendarme division Kaz?m Bey that the enemy was taking away the guns from the Muslim population in the places they occupied and were giving them to the Armenians and forming quatrains from them.[47]

The Revolt and Its Development

Before the revolt the Armenians that were living in the villages started to move in the city. With the beginning of the mobilization, the Armenians that were called to duty deserted and most of them secretly came to Van. The government was aware of this. When the major asked the Armenians what was going on the Committee leaders told him that it was difficult for them to earn money in the villages, so they had to move in with their relatives.[48]

By October all the young men had gone off to their military service. Nobody but the elderly, women and children were left in Van. One of the most upsetting news that was heard in October was the army corps were leaving Mu? and Elaz??. It was heard that the third division stationed in Van was going to leave as well.[49]

From the intelligence they gathered it was known that there were 30-40 thousand armed Armenians in the city and they were waiting for the Russians to occupy Van. Furthermore they had started terrorist activities to help the Russians.

In the telegram sent to the major of Van by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, dated Dec. 15, 1915, it was written that the Armenians had damaged some parts of the Re?adiye-Karç?kan telegram lines, there was a clash and they would like to be informed about the incidents.[50]

In the mean time, some news of the Armenians were revolting in the villages and towns around the district started to reach Van.

In the telegram of the Commander of Gendarme in Van, dated March 16, it was written that, in the ?atak subdivision of Van the Armenians had attacked the gendarme station, and had cut off the telegram lines. In March 20, (1915) they notified the Commander in chief that there were clashes all over the province and it was becoming more and more violent.[51]

The Van revolt had began in its full force. In reality this was not a situation that evolved and developed in a few months as it was described above.

In his telegram the major of Van Cevdet Bey sent to the Ministry of Internal Affairs on March 23, 1915 he told them that the Armenians were attacking many villages around the city and he has sent two detachments of 40 soldiers and the militia had joined them however, they still needed support and they will be provided with the support they needed.[52]

In another telegram he sent on April 11, 1915, he informed them that 4000 more Armenian rebels had secretly moved to Van secretly and the Armenians in the region started to attack the villages, burning the houses and leaving the women and children without homes.[53]

Likewise Russian General Maslofski had written that after the revolt had started in June 11, 1915[54] the situation in the Van region had become complicated and the Armenians had started a massacre against the Turks.[55]

Rafael de Nögalis that was going to wards Van from Erzurum wrote in his journal:

“After the war was declared the Past?rmac?yan (Member of Parliament, representative of Erzurum) with all the officers and soldiers from the3rd Army joined the Russians and came back with the Russians to burn and kill the Muslims”[56]

“Armenians were well equipped with these guns; they were getting good results in close range, almost as they were using machine guns”[57]

“Tile day I arrived the Van Revolt has already begun. The Armenians under the command of Aram Pasha, as far as Ms. Knapp and Mr. Ruschdun estimated were about 30.000 or more. The Armenians controlled the castle walls and the Aikesdan (Ba?lar) neighborhood. We were controlling the surroundings of the city. We had created a circle of steel. Each passing day it was getting tighter and tighter, according to the progress we made. I saw only a few battles that were violent as this one. Most of the time only a brick wall was separating us from the enemy. Neither sides, Muslims or Christians were willing to give up[58]

“As modern artillery, we only had a few field cannons and some old artillery”[59]

“The Armenians in Van where about 30,000-40,000 in number. Besides having thousand of mouser rifles they had many short-barreled guns and rifles. They had bought these over the years and stocked them. They also had hand grenades that gave us great losses.”

“In reality we had the castle under our control but it was nearly impossible for us to use our cannon against the city. Armenians were advantageous in every aspect. They had out numbered us. They had told us they were more than 30,000, of course the people that were coming every day from the villages and towns in surging crowd were not included to this number.”[60]

“The Armenians were gathered around the Yedikilise Church, If we drew back they would cause serious danger for us. That is why the Erzurum gendarme division was ordered to chase them away. They were not expecting such an attack. They set fire to this historical building and its thousand of years old library, just so it would not fall in the hands of the Turks.

On April 20, 1915, the Armenians set fire to the Ottoman Bank and some other official buildings and blew up some more. As this did not satisfy them they burned down all the Muslim neighborhoods.[61]

On the same date Cevdet Bey sent a telegram about the revolt that was growing and growing saying that the clashes in the city were continuing in full force and the rebels were mostly soldiers and acted well planned and organized.[62]

The Russian Occupation of Van

In the clashes that occurred in Van both sides suffered from great losses. One night the Armenian rebels climbed the castle killed the cannoners and damaged the cannon. Thousands were killed in the attack. So the number of people that could use a gun dropped to 2000.[63]

It was planned that the Russians would enter the city on May 15. Cevdet Bey tried to reason with the Russians for those who were not able to leave the city and protect themselves. Unfortunately he was not successful. The Russian army while marching towards Van over Muradiye was killing the Muslims and started a massacre worse than the Armenians. The ones that were able to get away took shelter in Van.[64] At this point Cevdet Bey decided that there was nothing more to be done and on May 14, 1915 he ordered the Turks to evacuate the city.[65] On May 14, they started to leave through the land and lake route. To travel by road was very difficult because the Armenians could attack. The ones that were able to protect themselves used this route. The others chose the lake, which they could go only as far as Tatvan. They used 40-50 boats in different sizes. However, because the sailors were Armenians the major was uncomfortable, he placed armed watchmen on each boat. Still, the sailors took some of the boats to Adilcevaz, which was under Russian occupation, and the Turks were killed.[66]

Nögalis described the incidents that occurred in Van, after the Turks had left as;.

“We had learned from the Major Cevdet Bey that after they had withdrew from Van, the Armenians took the control over the plain and killed all the Muslim women, children and the elderly for their money.”[67]

The Armenian Rule in Van

Armenians regarded the Russian occupation of Van as their own victory. Dr. Ussher in his book wrote that with the coming of the Russian Army the Turkish army drew back towards Bitlis and after that the Armenians totally took over the control of the city. They were waiting for this moment for centuries and at last, it had arrived.[68]

From then onwards Van was under their control. In the Russian Newspaper Otto-Yoga come out in Roskof, signed by Sever Yenin it was written that:

“...Victory Bells were ringing and the Turks quickly ran out of sight. They ran so fast that the Armenians found out about their disgraceful flight the next day. Armenians come out of Ikistan and raised their flag on the castle. 2 day past with joy a happiness.”

“Van had been released from the patronage of the barbarous Turks. From now on a Russian general major will rule the region. The Hero Aram has been appointed to this post. He has gathered many young volunteers and formed a union of Volunteers. Their best children are armed now. This new army will carry the Armenian flag beside the Russian flag.[69]

The Massacre of the Turks by Armenians in Van

Under the leadership of Aram the Armenians killed more then 10.000 women and ‘children. There were only around 1.500 Turks left.[70] The ones left, suffered from most horrible tortures, and the ones that were ill as Dr Ussher Wrote were left to die.

The damage and torture done by the Armenians were explained by a circular send to the foreign missions by the Foreign Ministry dated Sept. 16, 1916:

“In the Sahmeron Neighborhood 200 women and children were burned in the houses where they took shelter, although a white flag was raised in the Village Mirkas, the women and the young girls were kidnapped and taken to an unknown place. In same villages the mothers were forced to eat their dead children’s flesh.”

“In Aksani and H?n?s about 500 people and in ?ayhane about 200 women and children were forced into a mosque and they were burned a live”.

“Around Saray, people were put to the sword and, were thrown in to the drawn. More than 10.000 bodies were counted floating on the lake Van.”

“Again in Geva?, Veston and Mukas 3.000 people were massacred”

“In the city they burned down Mosques, houses, barrack even hospitals with the patients in them. The officers that got caught were tortured to death. In the mean time 1.200 people that were not aware what was going on in Van and wanted to go there were savagely murdered on the Vastan and Etkil road.”[71]

Zeliha han?m who lived the massacre that was carried out by the Armenians told her story to the authorities on June 4, 1916 of what she had experienced:

“In the ?amram neighborhood while we were in a house the Armenians told us not to be afraid. I told my husband Hüseyin Efendi and our neighbors not to believe them, they did not listen to me. In the morning Agah who was twenty years old, Ahmed who was fifteen years old, my son in Jaw Veysi who was eighteen years old and my husband got through themselves out of the house to save themselves. I could not see where they were killed. Subsequently they yelled out ‘Surrender’. About thirty people and their children were taken out to the yard. Out of them they killed a child named Bilal whose parents were dead, and three other children right in front of us. You could see that their real aim was to kill the men and take the women and the young. From there they took us to the American organization. They asked help to chose the male children and find the ones that were hiding. A child that had lost his parents was given on the condition that they would spare his life. They look the kid to somewhere beside the organization. While he was being cut from his behind somehow the Russian soldiers saved him. They took him to the hospital in the organization; we could not understand what had happened. While they were taking us there they stripped us naked, took whatever we had. There we saw around 8.000 Muslims. At one point they gave us a loaf of bread and at another some stew. However, the ones ate them started to bleed and died in two months time. We were left around hundred and fifty in number. They took us to Hadji Ziye Bey’s house. Our soldiers came and rescued us.”[72]

This shows how the American missions were used. Anyhow, it is not possible to explain in any other way why Dr. Ussher and the other missionaries left the town when the Armenians were withdrawing.

Russian’s also took part in the Armenian massacre that occured in Van.[73] In the villages Zeve, Mollakas?m, ?eyhkara, ?eyhane, Ayans, Paksi, Zorabad and many others[74] because the Muslim populace refused to leave they were all killed, without leaving a soul, by the Armenians and Russians. Both the Russians and Armenians, savagely killed people in the villages they went in. They burned the women and children alive, they cut out the eyes of the men and raped the young girls. For example in A?nak they took away 15 of the women and young girls and while they were drinking at night they stripped them naked by saying, “Come on pray (namaz k?l?n), let see how you pray” and afterwards raped them and tortured them to death.[75]

Again, according to the testimony of a woman named Firdevs, in Van’s Abbasa?a neighborhood, they savagely killed the Muslims, they cut open the stomach of a pregnant woman, took the baby out and cut of its head. They tortured the people of the household they went in and then killed them. They cut of the sexual organ of a boy of 15-16 years old and later cut it into pieces, and raped the women and young girls they took to the American mission.[76] The ones that wanted to surrender were tortured[77] to death either by the Armenians or Russians.[78]

The case below shows how revolting was the level of the brutality:

“...The Armenians had brought two Muslim women with them. Both of them were pregnant. Two Russian soldiers and two Armenians Came. They made a bet on, if the children were male or female. They cut their stomach open one of them, the child was a boy, the other was to small to find out and they argued over it for a long time..."[79]

The incidents that occurred in Van were lived exactly as it is told above and supported by the documents. Yet, in the script of Atom Egoyan is movie none of them mentioned. On the contrary it is told as if the Turks massacred the Armenians. This shows that Atom Egoyan has misrepresented history.

[1] Atom Egoyan, Ararat (The Scenario, Final Draft) Canada, 2001, p.4.
[2] Egoyan, Ararat, p.4.
[3] Uygur Kocaba?o?Iu, Kendi Belgeleriyle Anadolu’daki Amerika, (?stanbul:, 1989), p. 13.
[4] Kocaba?o?lu, Kendi Belgeleriyle..., p. 13.
[5] Seçil Akgün, ‘Amerikal? Misyonerlerin Ermeni Meselesindeki Rolü”, Atatürk Yolu, (May 1988) No.1, Ankara 1988,
[6] ABCFM has been founded in 1810. by the Congregationalists whom were one of the three representatives of the Puritans that evolved in England towards the end of the XVI Century and in America in the XVII Century.(For deta¬iled information on the subject see, Kocaba?oglu. tÇendi Belgeleriyle..., p. 9-25).
[7] This is America’s first missionary organization that dealt with overseas. The organization that was founded in 1810, besides taking the Church to the Hawaiian’s and the native Americans has included China, India, Sri Lanka, Japan, Turkey. Syria. North Afirica and many other European countries in its scope. ( eves/guides/sc070.html.)
[8] Justin McCarthy and Carolyn McCarthy, Turks and Armenians A Manual on The Armenian Questions. (Washington D.C.: 1989), pp. 35-36.
[9] Mustafa Balc??o?lu, Te?kilat-Mahsusa’dan Cumhuriyete. (Ankara 2001), pp. 58-59.
[10] Kocaba?oglu, Kendi Belgeleriyle ..., p. 67.
[11] ABCFM Archieves, Serial ABC, 169 Vol. 1 No. 124, Naklen Kocaba?o?lu, Kendi Belgeleriyle..., pp. 67-68.
[12] Kocaba?oglu. Kendi Belgeleriyle p.67.
[13] ABCFM Archieves, Serial ABC, 16:9 Vol. 1 No. 124. Naklen Kocaba?o?lu, Kendi Belgeleriyle..., pp. 67-68.
[14] Mark MaIkasian, “The Disintigration of the Armenian Cause in the United States, 1918-1927”, International Journal of Middle f2ast Studies, 16, 1984, p. 349; David Marshal Lang, The Armenians A People in Exile, (London: 1981), pp. 121-122.” According to the study Fisk, Parson, King, Goodell and Smith conducted between 1821-1827 in Pa¬lestine and Syria it was for sure that the Armenians were the target of the missionaries studies. Besides BOARD, according to these studies decided where the first missionaries would be built in Anatolia. In his two volume book Eli Smith, after saying that it is impossible to convert the
Muslim to Protestantism stanize the Muslims says that “...however by working among the Christians we have the chance of getting in to the heart of the enemy land.” (Kocaba?o?lu, Kendi Belgelerlyle ..., p. 38).
[15] Bilal ?im?ir. ‘Ermeni Propagandas?n?n Amerika Boyutu Üzerine’, Tarih Boyunca Türklerin Ermeni Toplumu ile ?li?¬ki!erinin Sempozyumu. 8-12 Ekim 1984, Erzurum, (Ankara: 1985). p. 93. starting from the end of the 19th Cen¬tury ABCFM’s overseas missionary activities started to become an Armenian matter
(Justin McCarthy. ‘I. Dünya Sava??’nda ?ngiliz propagandas? ve Bryce Raporu’ Osman??’dan günümüze Ermeni Sorunu (Ankara: 200) p. 15.
[16] Samuel Colcord Barlett, Historical Sketch of the Missions of the American Board in Turkey, (Boston: 1880) p. I.
[17] See M. Hidayet Vahapoglu, Osmanl?’dan Günümüze Az?nl?k ve Yabanc? okullar, (Ankara: 1997) pp. 109-I Il; Nec¬mettin Tozlu. Kültür ve E?itim Tarihimizde Yabanc? Okullar, (Ankara: 1991), Necdet Sevinç, Ajan Okullan, (?stan¬bul: I975); ?lknur Polat Haydaroglu, Osmanl? ?mparatorlugunda Yabanc? Okullar, (Ankara: 1990);): Kocaba?o?lu, Kendi Belgeleriyle - Kocaba?o?lu, ‘Do?u Sorunu Çerçevesinde Amerikan Misyoner Faaliyetler’, Tarihi Geli?meler ?çinde Türkiye’nin Sorunlan Sempozyumu Dün-Bugün-Yar?n, Ankara, 8-9 Mart 1990, (Ankara: 1992).
[18] That was a great amount for those days.
[19] ?im?ir, ‘Ermeni Propagandas?n?n ...“. pp. 98-100.
[20] Ergünoz, Van ve Çevresinde Ermeni ?syanlar? 1896-1916 (?stanbul; 1994), p. 44.
[21] Akçora, Ermeni ?syanlar?..., p. 11.
[22] Osman Karab?y?k, Türk — Ermeni Münasebetlerinin Dünü-Bugünü (?stanbul: 1984), p. 58.
[23] Akçora, Ermeni isyanlar? ..., p. 11.
[24] Akçora has given the date of this organization establishement as 1878, on the other hand Karab?y?k has given it as 1882.: Akçora. Ermeni ?syanlar?..., pp. 11-12; Karab?y?k, Türk-Ermeni..., pp.58-59.
[25] Karab?y?k, Türk — Ermeni ...,p. 58 — 59.
[26] Akçora, Ermeni ?syanlar? ..., p. 102.
[27] General Mayewski, Statistiqu des Provinces de Van at de Bitlis. pp. 33-39, Naklen, Kamuran Gürün, Ermeni Dosya¬s?, (Ankara: 1988), p.2 10.
[28] Akçora. Ermeni ?syanlar? ..., p. 108.
[29] Esat Uras, Tarihte Ermeniler ve Ermeni Meselesi, (?stanbul: 1987), p. 500.
[30] Akçora. Emeni isyanlar? ... pp. 114 — 115.
[31] Akçora, Emeni lsyanlar? ..., p. 115.
[32] Ba? vekalet Ar?ivi — Y?ld?z Evrak?, K?s?m:36, Naklen, Hocao?lu, Tarihte Ermeni Mezalimi..., p. 349,
[33] Akçora. Emeni ?syanlan ..., pp. 117.
[34] For more detailed information on the 1st Van Revolt see, Akçora. Ermeni ?syanlar?. Uras, Tarihte Ermeniler ‘Hocao?lu, Tarihte Ermeni Mezalimi ‘ Gürün, Ermeni Dosyas?.
[35] Gürün, Ermeni Dosyas? ..., s. 260.
[36] Yarbay Guze. “Büyük Harpte ‘Kafkas Cephesi’ndeki Muharebeler (Il)’ Trans. Yarbay Hakk?, Yay. Haz. Ömür Bar??, Belgelerle Türk Tarihi Dergisi, (Ekim 2001), Sa: 57 (?stanbul), 2001, p. 51.
[37] Askeri Tarih Belgeleri Dergisi, No:. 81. Document 1804.
[38] ATBD. No: 81 Document: 1804.
[39] Gürün, Ermeni Dosyas?, p. 262. Also see ATBD, No.: 81 Document 1804.(In this document the Teheran Counsula¬te has informed the government, that the Russians are very interested in the Armenians in Iran and Caucasus. has started to handout weapons to them and the Russian Consulate of, Tibris had offered then an Armenia. In this re¬port the government was also informed of the number of the Russian Army that gathered around Mako and their contacts with the Armenians in Van
[40] Akçora, Ermeni Isyanlar?... p, 74 ‘
[41] ATBD, No: 81, Document: 1808
[42] ATBD, No: 81, Document: 1903.
[43] Gürün, Ermeni Dosyas?, p. 263.
[44] ATBD, No: 81, Document: 1812
[45] ATBD, No: 81, Document: 1812.
[46] Gürün, Ermeni Dosyas?, p. 264.
[47] ATBD, No: 81, Document: 1814
[48] Hikmet Ilgaz, ?ark Y?ld?z?, Vol. I., 1953, p. 25.
[49] Ilgaz, ?ark Y?ld?z?, Vol.1, p. 33.
[50] Gürün, Ermeni Dosyas?, p. 265.
[51] Gürün, Ermeni Dosyas?, p. 266.
[52] Akçora, Ermeni ?syanlar? ..., p. 169.
[53] ATASE, No: 1/1 File. 44, Dos. 155. F-22.
[54] The Russian General Maslofski wrote that the revolt had began on April 14. (General Maslofski, Umumi Harpte Kaf¬kas Cephesinin Tenkidi, Trans. Kaymakam Nazmi, (Ankara: 1935), p.194-195)
[55] General Maslofski, Umumi Harpte Kafkas ...,, pp. 194-195.y
[56] Rafael de Nögalis, Hilal Alt?nda Dört Sene ve Buna Ait Bir cevap. Trans. Kaymakam Hakk?, (?stanbul: 1931), p. 4.
[57] Nögalis, HiIal Alt?nda ..., p.18.
[58] Nögalis. Hilal Alt?nda   p.19.
[59] Nögalis, Hilal Alt?nda   p. 22.
[60] Nögalis, Hilal Alt?nda ..., p. 23.
[61] Kara Schemsi, Turcs et Armeniens devant l’historie, Nouveaux temoignages russes sur les atrocities armeniennes de 1914-1918, (Geneve) pp. 38-43, 58-65.
[62] Akçora. Ermeni ?syanlar? ..., p. 175.
[63] Mehmet Hocao?lu, Ar?iv Vesikalanyla Tarihte Ermeni Mezalimi ve Ermeniler, (?stanbul: 1976), p. 632.
[64] Hocao?lu. Tarihte Ermeni Mezalimi ...,p. 632.
[65] Hocao?lu, Tarihte Ermeni Mezalimi ..., p. 632.
[66] Hocao?lu, Tarihte Ermeni Mezalimi ..., p. 632.
[67] Nögalis, Hilal Alt?nda ..., p. 39.
[68] Clarence D. Ussher, An American Physician in Turkey, (Boston: 1917), p. 288
[69] Hocao?lu, Tarihte Ermeni Mezalimi p. 636.
[70] Akçora, Ermeni ?syanlar?..., p. 196
[71] Akçora, Ermeni ?syanlar?..., p. 196 (For detailed information on Armenian massacre toward the Turks of Van and its surroundings see, Akçora, Ermeni ?syan/an ...; Azmi Süslü-Gülay Ö?ün-M. Törehan Serdar, Van, Bitlis, Mu? ve Kars’taki Ermeni Katliamlar? Gazilerle Mülakat, (Ankara: 1994).
[72] Prime ministry Ottoman Archieves (BOA), Hariciye Siyasi Harb-i Umumi: (HR. SYS. HU), kr. 110, dos.12-2 nr. 56-62
[73] BOA, HR. SYS. HU, kr 110, dos. 12-3, nr. 12-14, 16, 18-26, 41-44.
[74] BOA, HR. SYS. HU, kr. 110, dos. 12-2, nr. 92-98
[75] BOA, HR. SYS. HU, kr. 110, dos. 12-2, nr. 101-102
[76] BOA, HR. SYS. HU, kr. 110. dos. 12-2, nr. 114-116.
[77] For the testimonies dated 1916 by the people who lived and survived these massacres see, BOA. HR. SYS. HU, kr. 110, dos. 12-4, nr. 110-123; BOA, HR. SYS. HU, kr. 110, dos. 12-2, nr. 19-33; BOA, HR. SYS. HU, kr. 110, dos. 12-2, nr. 125-134; BOA, HR. SYS. HU, kr. 110, dos, 12-2, nr. 66-74, 99-100, 124; BOA, HR. SYS. HU, kr. 110, dos. 12-2, nr. 135-143.
[78] BOA, HR. SYS. HU, kr. 110, dos. 12-2, nr. 117-123
[79] BOA, HR, SYS. HU, kr. 110, dos. 12-2, nr. 75-91, 103-106, 111-113, 163-166.

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