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Lowry Heath W.*
The Story Behind Ambassador Morgenthau's Story
 

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LIBRARY AND PRIVATE MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS:

I.FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT LIBRARY, HYDE PARK, NEW YORK:
The Roosevelt Library houses the ‘Papers of Henry Morgenthau, Jr.,’ son of Ambassador Henry Morgenthau. As such, they contain two ‘series’ (Nos. 8 and 10), with direct relevance to the elder Morgenthau:

a) Series 8: GAER FILE: Boxes 1 and 2 of this 22 box series, compiled by Joseph Gaer who was assisting the younger Morgenthau in writing his unpublished autobiography, contain a typed transcript of correspondence between Morgenthau father and son, of which pp. 54—330 consist of copies of letters written by Ambassador Morgenthau during his tenure in Constantinople, November 1913 — January 1916; Cited herein as: FDR - HMJ/Gaer + Box number;

b) Series 1O:PAPERS OF HENRY MORGENTHAU, SR.: Consisting primarily of business and personal letters of Ambassador Henry Morgenthau, this collection contains a great amount of material dating from Morgenthau’s tenure in Turkey. Of particular importance is a set of the weekly family letters Morgenthau sent to relatives in the United States (these are scattered throughout Boxes 5, 7, 8, and 10); Cited herein as: FDR: HMS + Box number.

II.LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON, D.C. - MANUSCRIPT DIVISION:
This facility houses a collection of approximately 30,000 items, called: The Papers of Henry Morgenthau.’ I have utilized a microflim edition of these papers consisting of 41 reels. The collection comprises material from all periods of Morgenthau’s life, from his early childhood in the 1860’s to shortly before his death in 1946. Of primary interest for the years of his Ambassadorship in Turkey, is Reel No. 5, which contains a typed transcript of his daily ‘Diary’ covering literally every day of his twenty—six month sojourn in Turkey. Material from this collection cited in the present study is given as: LC: PHM + Reel number.
In addition, the papers of Woodrow Wilson preserved in this collection were examined.

III.COLLECTION OF HENDRICK PAPERS IN POSSESSION OF MR. AND MRS. ROBERT RUSNAK, WINFIELD, ILLINOIS:
The ‘Papers of Burton J. Hendrick,’ the individual who wrote the book: Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story, are in the possession of his granddaughter Mrs. Martha Rusnak. Her husband, Professor Robert Rusnak, a historian specializing in American studies, supplied the photocopies. of numerous documents relating to the Hendrick—Morgenthau relationship from these papers. They are cited herein as: Hendrick/Rusnak + a description of the actual item referred to.

IV.u.s. NATIONAL ARCHIVES, WASHINGTON, D.C.:
In particular, a number of Decimal Files in Record Groups 59 and 84 were used for consulting reports filed by Morgenthau. Particularly useful, were the materials preserved in Decimal File 867.4106 (Microfilm Publications 353: Reels 43 through 48) on Race Relations in Turkey, 1910-1929, wherein the bulk of Morgenthau’s Armenian related reports are found. When cited in this study the Record Gröup number and Decimal File data are provided.

V. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY: BUTLER LIBRARY - ‘ORAL HISTORY RESEARCH OFFICE:’
The interview conducted by Professor Alan Nevins with Burton J. Hendrick which is entitled: The Reminiscences of Burton J. Hendrick,’ was obtained from this collection in New York City.



PUBLISHED DOCUMENT COLLECTIONS CITED IN THIS STUDY:

Great Britain. The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire: Documents Presented to Viscount Gray of Fafrodon, Secretary of State for Foreign Afairs. London (Houghton & Stoughton), 1916.

Lepsius, Johannes. Le Rapport Secret du Dr. Johanrjes Lepsius sur tes Massacres D’Armenie. Paris (Payot & Cie.), 1918.

Toynbee, Arnold J. Armenian Atrocities: The Murder of a Nation. With a speech delivered by Lord Bryce. London (Houghton & Stoughton), 1915.
 


 
DIPLOMATIC, JOURNALISTIC, MILITARY AND MISSIONARY MEMOIRS WITH RELEVANCE TO THE YEARS 1913-1916, IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE:

Atkinson, Harriett H. “Mrs. Harriet H. Atkinson’s Eyewitness Account of the Massacres at Harpoot,” The Armenian Review, Volume XXIX., No. 1 (Spring, 1976), pp. 3—25 + Photos.

Barrows, John Ottis. In the Land of Ararat: A Sketch of the Life of Mrs. Elizabeth Freeman Barrows Ussher, Missionary to Turkey and a Martyr of the Great War. New York (Fleming H. Revell Co.), 1916.

Chamber, Ada Pierce. In An Anatolian Valley. New York (Bourgey & Curl, Inc., 1955.

Chambers, William Nesbitt. Yoljuluk: Random Thoughts of a Life in Imperial Turkey. London (Simpking Marshall, Limited), 1928.

Clark, Alice Keep. Letters from Cilicia. Chicago, (A.C. Weinthrop & Co.), 1924.

Compton, Carl C. The Morning Cometh: 45 Years with A nat ol ta College. New Rochelle, N.Y. (Aristide D. Caratzas), 1986.

Daghlian, Levon K. Under the Gallows. Beirut (Hamaskaine Press), 1917.

Davis, Leslie A. The Slaughterhouse Province: An American Diplomat’s Report on the Armenian Genocide, 1915-1917. Edited by Susan Kelekian

Blair. New Rochelle, N.Y. (Aristide D. Caratzas), 1989. Djemal Pasha.Memories of a Turkish Statesman, 1913-1919. New York (George A. Doran Co.), 1922. Eby, D.C. At the Mercy of Turkish Brigands: A Ttue Story. New Carlisle, Ohio (The Bethel Publishing Co.), 1922.
 
Einstein, Lewis.Inside Constantinople During the Dardanelles Expedition. New York, (E.P. Dutton & Co.), 1918,

Gates, Frank Caleb.: Not To Me Only. Princeton (Princeton University Press), 1940.

Glocker, H.W. Interned in Turkey, 1914-1918. Beirut, Lebanon (Sevan Press), 1969.

Halide Edib. Memoirs of Halide Edib. New York & London (The Century Company), 1926.

Herbert, Aubrey. Ben Kendim. London (Hutchinson & Co.), 1924.

Herbert, Aubrey. Mons, Anzac and Kut. London (Hutchinson & Co.), 1919.

Florton, George. The Blight of Asia: An Account of the Systematic Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans and the Culpability of Certain Great Powers. Indianapolis (The Bobs—Merrill Co.), 1926.

Knapp, Grace H. The Tragedy of Bitlis, Being Mainly the Narratives of Grisell M. Mclaren and Myrtle O. Shane. New York (Fleming H. Revell Co.), 1919.

Liman von Sanders, Otto. Five Years in Turkey. Annapolis, Maryland (United States Naval Institute), 1927.

Morgenthau, Henry (in collaboration with French Strother). All In A Life-Time. Garden City, N.Y. (Doubleday, Page & Co.), 1922.

Morgenthau, Henry. Ambassador Morgenthau.’s Story. New York (Doubleday, Page & Co.), 1918.

Morgenthau, Henry. Secrets of the Bosphorus. London (Hutchinson & Co.), 1918.

Morgenthau, Henry. The Tragedy of Armenia. London (Spottiswoods, Ballantyne & Co.), 1919. (Reprint of: “The Greatest Horror in History,” The Red Cross Magazine April 1919).
 
Niepage, Martin. The Horrors of Aleppo, Seen by a German Eye—Witness. New York (George H. Doran Co.), 1918.

Nogales, Rafael De. Four Years Beneath the Crescent. London (Charles Scnbner’s Sons), 1926.

Nogales, Rafael De. Memoirs of a Soldier of Fortune. New York (Garden City Publishing Co,), 1932.

Patrick, Mary M. Under Five Sultans. NewYork (The Century Company), 1929,

Pears, Edwin. Forty Years in Constantinople. The Recollections of Sir Edwin Pears, 1873-1915. New York (D. Appleton and Co.), 1916.

Philip, Hoffman. Cholera in the Near East. Santa Barbara, California (Privately Printed), 1947.

Pomiankowski, J. Der Zusammenbruch des Ottomanishen Reiches. Graz, Austria (Akademische Druck), 1969.

Roosevelt, Kermit. War in the Garden of Eden. New York (Charles Scribner’s Sons), 1919.

Schreiner, George A. From Berlin to Bagdad: Behind the Scenes in the Near East. New York (Harper and Brothers), 1918.

Schreiner, George A. The Crajt Sinister: A Diplomatico-Political History of the Great War and its Causes. New York (G.Albert Geyer), 1920.

Scipio, Lynn A. My Thirty Years in Turkey. Rindge, New Hampshire (Richard R. Smith Publisher), 1955.

Stephens, Everett and Mary. Survival Against All Odds: The First 100 Years of Anatolta College. New York (Aristide D. Caratzas), 1986.

Stuermer, Harry. Two War Years in Constantinople: Sketches of German and Young Turkish Ethics and Politics. New York (George H. Doran Co.), 1917.

Ussher, Clarence D. and Knapp, Grace H.: An American Physician in Turkey: A Narrative of Adventures in Peace and in War. Boston & New York (Houghton Mifflin Co.), 1917.

White, George E. Adventuring With Anatolia College. Grinnell, Iowa (Herald Register Publishing Co.), 1940.

Yalman, Ahmed Emin. Turkey In My Time. Oklahoma (University of Oklahoma Press), 1956.



SECONDARY SOURCES CITED IN THE STUDY:

Andonian, Aram. The Memoirs of Naim Bey: Turkish Official Documents Relating to the Deportations and Massacres of Armenians. Introduction by Viscount Gladstone. London (Hodder & Stoughton), 1920.

Hovannisian, Richard G. Armenia on the Road to Independence, 1918. Berkeley (University of California Press), 1967.

Hovannisian, Richard G.,(Editor). The Armenian Genocide in Perspective. New Brunswick & Oxford (Transaction Books), 1986.

Hovannisian, Richard G. The Armenian Holocaust: A Bibliography Relating to the Deportations, Massacres, and Dispersion of the Armenian People, 1915-1923.. Cambridge, Massachusetts (Armenian Heritage Press), 1980.

Sanders, Michael, and Taylor, Philip M. British Propaganda During the First World War, 1914-1918. London (The Macmillan Press, Ltd.), 1982.

Ahmad, Feroz. The Young Turks: The Committee of Union and Progress in Turkish Politics, 1908-1914. Oxford (The Clarendon Press), 1969.

Ahmet Emin (Yalman). Turkey in the World War. New Haven (Yale University Press), 1930.

Barton, James L. Story of Near East Relief (1915-1 930): An Interpretation. New York (The Macmillan Co.), 1930.

Benson, Edward F. Crescent and Iron Cross. New York (George H. Doran Company), 1918.

Bonsai, Stephen. Suitors and Supplies: The Little Nations at Versailles. Fort Washington, N.Y. (Kennikat Press, Inc.), 1969.

Bryson, Thomas A. American Diplomatic Relations With the Middle East, 1784-1975: A Survey. Metuchen, N.J. (The Scarecrow Press, Inc.), 1977.

Bryson, Thomas A. “The Armenian—American Society: A Factor in American—Turkish Relations, 1919—1924,” The Armenian Review. Vol. XXIX, No. 1-113, (Spring, 1976).

Bryson, Thomas A. United States/Middle East Diplomatic Relations, 1784-1978: An Annotated Bibliography. Metuchen, N.J. (The Scarecrow Press), 1979.

Daniel, Robert L. American Philanthropy in the Near East, 1820—1960. Athens, Ohio (Ohio University Press), 1970.

DeNovo, John A. American Interests and Policies in the Middle East, 1900—1939. Minneapolis, (University of Minnesota Press), 1963.
 
Evans, Laurence. United States Policy and the Partition of Turkey, 1914-1924. Baltimore (The Johns Hopkins Press), 1965.

Fitzherbert, Margaret. The Man Who Was Greenmantle -A Biography of Aubrey Herbert. London (John Murray), 1983.

Fromkin, David. A Peace To End All Peace: Creating The Modern Middle East, 1914-1922. New York (Henry Holt & Co.), 1989.

Gidney, James B. A Mandate for Armenia. Oberlin, Ohio (Kent State University Press), 1967,

Grabill, Joseph L. Protestant Diplomacy and the Near East: Missionary Influence on American Policy, 1810-1927. Minneapolis (University of Minnesota Press), 1971.

Helmreich, Paul C. From Paris to Sevres: The Partition of the Ottoman Empire at the Peace Conference of 1919-1920. Columbus, Ohio (Ohio State University Press), 1974.

Howard, Harry. The Partition of Turkey: A Diplomatic History, 1919—1923. Norman, Oklahoma (University of Oklahoma Press), 1931.

Malkasian, Mark.”The Disintegration of the Armenian Cause in the United States, 1918—1927,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 16 (1984).

Mandeistam, Andre. La Societe des Nations el les Puissances Devant le Probleme Arritenien. Paris (A. Pedone, Editeur), 1926.

Mandeistam, Andre. Le Sort de l’Empire Ottoman. Paris (Librairie Payot & Son), 1917.

Mears, Eliot Grinnell. Modern Turkey: A Politico-Economic Interpretation, 1908-1923. New York (Macmillan Co.), 1924.

Nassibian, Akaby. Britain and the Armenian Question, 1915—1923. London & Sydney (Croom Helm), 1984.
 
Toynbee, Arnold J. The Murderous Tyranny of the Turk. Preface by Lord Bryce. London (Hodder & Stoughton), 1917.

Trask, Roger R. The United States Response to Turkish Nationalism and Reform, 1914-1939. Minneapolis (university of Minnesota. Press), 1971.

Trumpener, Ulrich.Germany and the Ottoman Empire, 1914-1918. Princeton (Princeton University Press), 1968

Tuchman, Barbara W.’The Assimilationist Dilemma: Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story,” Commentary, Vol.63, No.5 (May 1977), pp. 58-62.

Walker, Christopher L. Armenia: The Survival of a Nation. New York (St. Martin’s Press), 1984,

Weber, G. Frank. Eagles on the Crescent: Germany, Austria & the Diplomacy of the Turkish Alliance, 1914-1918. Ithaca & London (Cornell University Press), 1970.

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