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Books out of Print

Notes

Kamuran GÜRÜN*
The Armenian File
 

 .F™DP="justify">Notes


The following books and archives have been cited in abbreviated form.

AAEF — Archives des Affaires Etrangeres de France
Bayur — Yusuf Hikmet Bayur, Türk Inkilabi Tarihi, 3 vols (Ankara, 1940—67) Die Grosse Politik — Die Grosse Politik der Europaischen Kabinette 1911—1914, ed. Lepsius (Berlin, 1922—7)
F. 0. — Foreign Office Papers, Public Record Office
Gatteyrias (1882) — J. A. Gatteyrias, L’Armenie et les Armeniens (Paris, 1882)
Genelkurmay — Turkish General Staff
Morgan (1919) — Jacques de Morgan, Histoire du Peuple Armenien (Paris, 1919)
Nalbandian (1963) — Louise Nalbandian, The Armenian Revolutionary Movement (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1963)
Pastermadjian (1949) — H. Pastermadjian, Histoire de l’Armenie (Paris, 1949)
Price (1923) — Clair Price, The Rebirth of Turkey (New York, 1923)
Sanjian (1965) — Avedis K. Sanjian, The Armenian Communities in Syria under Ottoman Dominion (Cambridge, Mass., 1965)
Turkey — British Blue Books on Turkey
Uras (1976) — Esat Uras, Tarihte Ermeniler ve Ermeni Meselesi (Istanbul, 1976)
USNA — United States National Archives



Introduction

[1] As this information can be found in any general ‘Armenian History’ it has not been deemed necessary to cite a reference for it.
[2] Morgan (1919), p. 304.
[3] Gatteyrias (1882), p. 77
[4] Morgan (1919), p. 310.
[5] Pastermadjian (1949), p. 113 n. 2.
[6] David Marshall Lang, Armenia, Cradle of Civilization (London, 1980), p. 268.
[7] August Carriere, Moise de Khoren et les Genealogies Patriarcales (Paris, 1891).
[8] Morgan (1919), p. 309
[9] Descriptions of these two works are found in M. F. Brosset, Collection d’Historiens Armeniens (reprint, Amsterdam, 1979).



1 Armenia and the Armenians

[1] A. J. Toynbee, A Study of History (Oxford University Press, 1963), Vol. VII, p. 661
[2] Gatteyrias (1882), pp. 12—15.
[3] Morgan (1919), pp. 43—4.
[4] Frederic Macler, La Nation Armenienne, son passe, ses malheurs (Paris, 1924), pp. 18—19.
[5] Pastermadjian (1949), p.23.
[6] Nalbandian (1963), p. 4.
[7] Richard Hovannissian, Armenia on the Road to Independence. (Los Angeles, 1963), p. 2
[8] Rene Grousset, Histoire de l’Armenie (Paris, 1973), pp. 67—8.
[9] David Marshall Lang, Armenia, Cradle of Civilization (London, 1980), p. 94.
[10] Grousset, op. cit., p. 42.
[11] Bedrich Hrozny, Histoire de l’Asie Anterieure (Paris, 1947), pp. 191—7.
[12] Herodotus, The Histories (Penguin Books, 1972).
[13] Xenophon, The Persian Expeditions (Penguin Books, 1979).
[14] Xenophon, Oeuvres Completes, Vol. 2 (Anabase) (Garnier—Flammarion, Paris, 1967), p. 249.
[15] Ruppen Courian, Promartyrs de la Civilization (Yverdon, Switzerland, 1964), p. 27.
[16] Grousset, op. cit., pp. 287—95.
[17] Sanjian (1965).



2 The origins of the Armenian question

[1] A. J. Toynbee, A Study of History (Oxford University Press, 1963), Vol. VII, p. 381.
[2] Francesco Gabrieli, Muhammed and the Conquest of Islam, p. 110.
[3] The first genocide of the 20th century. Compiled by James Nazer (New York, 1968), p. 15.
[4] Dickran H. Boyajiyan, Armenia (New Jersey, 1972), p. 87.
[5] Sanjian (1965), p. 21.
[6] Morgan (1919), p. 364.
[7] Pastermadjian (1949), p. 290.
[8] Nalbandian (1963), pp. 30—1.
[9] Boyajiyan, op. cit., p. 84.
[10] Samouel d’Ani, Tables chronologiques, in M. F. Brosset, Collection d’Historiens Armeniens (Amsterdam, 1979), p. 345.
[11] Morgan (1919), p. 102.
[12] Gatteyrias (1882), pp.46—55.
[13] Boyajiyan, op. cit., p. 86.
[14] Edwin M. Bliss, Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities (Philadelphia, 1896), pp. 1—2.
[15] Felix Valyi, Revolutions in Islam (London, 1925), pp. 27—8.
[16] E. Alexander Powell, The Struggle for Power in Moslem Asia (New York, 1925), p. 120.
[17] Ernest Jackh, The Rising Crescent (New York, 1944), p. 37.
[18] Valyi, op. cit., pp. 48—9.
[19] Pastermadjian (1949), p. 274.
[20] Talcott Williams, Turkey, A World Problem of Today (New York, 1922), p. 194.
[21] Powell, op. cit., pp. 27—8.
[22] Price (1923), p. 79—80.
[23] Valyi, op. cit., pp. 31—8.
[24] Bliss, op. cit., pp. 302ff.
[25] Cyrus Hamlin, My Life and Times (Boston, 1893), p. 284.
[26] Price (1923), pp. 65—6.
[27] Elie Kedourie, The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies (New York), pp. 287—9.
[28] Sydney Whitman, Turkish Memories (London, 1914), pp. 120—1.
[29] Rev. Henry Fanshawe Tozer, Turkish Armenia and Eastern Asia Minor (London, 1881), p. 230.
[30] Powell, op. cit., p. 22.
[31] Ibid, p. 30.
[32] Whitman, op. cit., p. 29.
[33] Ibid, pp. 70—94.
[34] Price (1923), p. 189.
[35] A. J. Toynbee, The Western Question (New York, 1970), p. 80.
[36] F.O. 371/3404/162647, p. 2.
[37] Lucy Masterman, C. F. G. Masterman (London, 1968), p. 272.
[38] Ibid, p. 298.
[39] Ibid, p. 273.
[40] Third Report on the work conducted for the government at Wellington House. British documents, 37/156/6/22234.
[41] A. J. Toynbee, Armenian Atrocities: The murder of a nation (New York, 1975).
[42] Arthur Ponsonby, Falsehood in War-Time (New York, 1971).
[43] Cate Haste, Keep the home fires burning (London, 1977).
[44] C. F. Dixon-Johnson, The Armenians (Blackburn, 1916), p. 61.



3 The Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and the policies of the great powers

[1] M. F. Brosset, Collection d’Historiens Armeniens (Amsterdam, 1979), pp. 286, 297.
[2] Sanjian (1965), p. 34.
[3] W. E. D. Allen, Caucasian Battlefields (Cambridge, 1953), p. 18.
[4] Ismail Hami Danismend, Izahli Osmanli Tarihi Kronolojisi (Istanbul, 1972), Vol. IV, p. 65.
[5] Richard Hovannisian, Armenia on the Road to Independence (Los Angeles, 1963), p.9.
[6] W. E. D. Allen, op. cit., p. 43.
[7] Hovannisian, op. cit., pp. 10—11.
[8] Danismend, op. cit., IV, p. 174.
[9] Ibid, pp. 176—7.
[10] C. Oscanyan, The Sultan and His People (London, 1857), pp. 353—4.
[11] Gatteyrias (1882), p. 136.
[12] M. B. Dadian, ‘La Societe armenienne contemporaine’, Revue des deus Mondes (June 1867).
[13] Gatteyrias (1882), p. 139.
[14] Pasdermadjian (1949), p. 312.
[15] Mikail Varandian, L’Armenie etla question armenienne (Laval, 1917), pp. 42—6.
[16] E. Aknouni, Les Plaies du Caucase (Geneva, 1905), pp. 117—19.
[17] Ibid, pp. 10—14.
[18] Rifki Salim Burçak, Türk—Rus—Ingiliz münasebetleri (Istanbul, 1946), p. 9.
[19] Jacques Ancel, Manuel Historique de la question d’orient, p. 143.
[20] Pastermadjian (1949), p. 353.
[21] Marcel Leart, La Question armenienne a la lumiere des documents (Paris, 1913), pp. 65ff.
[22] Dadian op. cit., p. 915.
[23] Uras (1976), p. 179.
[24] F.O. 424/46, No. 336.
[25] F.O. 424/51/Conf. No. 588.
[26] F.O. 424/63, No. 277.
[27] F.O. 424/63, 352.
[28] Hovannisian, op. cit., p. 37.
[29] Pastermadjian (1949), p. 374.
[30] Morgan (1919), p. 297.
[31] Leart, op. cit.
[32] F.O. 96/205.
[33] H. F. B. Lynch, Armenia, Travels and Studies, Vol. II, (Beirut, 1965), p. 427.
[34] F.O. 424/107, No. 104, Enclosure I.
[35] Lynch, op. cit., II, p. 427.
[36] F.O. 424/106, No. 273, Enclosure I.
[37] F.O. 424/107, No. 135, Enclosure I.
[38] F.O. 424/106, No. 200.
[39] F.O. 424/132, No. 46, Enclosure I.
[40] F.O. 424/107, No. 104, Enclosure I, p. 2.
[41] F.O. 424/132, No. 46, Enclosure 5.
[42] Ludovic de Constenson, Les Reformes en Turguie d’Asie (Paris, 1913).
[43] Viconte de Coursons, La Rebellion Armenienne, son origine, son but (Paris, 1895).
[44] Christopher Walker, Armenia. The Survival of a Nation (London, 1981), p. 230.
[45] Rev. Henry F. Tozer, Turkish Armenia and Eastern Asia Minor (London, 1881), p. 194n.
[46] Price (1923), p. 78.
[47] Alexander Powell, The Struggle for Power in Muslim Asia (New York, 1923), p. 114.
[48] Lynch, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 428.
[49] Vital Cuinet, La Turquie d’Asie (Paris 1892—4), 4 vols.
[50] Documents diplomatiques, Affaires armeniennes, Projet de Reforme dans l’Empire Ottoman, 1893—1897, pp. 2—8.
[51] Kemal H. Karpat, ‘Ottoman Population Records and the Census of 1881/82— 1893, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 9 (1978), pp. 237—74.
[52] Lynch, op. cit., II, p. 408
[53] F.O. 424/106, No. 273.
[54] F.O. 424/107, No. 135, Enclosure I.
[55] Lynch, op. cit., II, p. 206.
[56] Turkey, No. 8 (1896), No. 109.
[57] F.O. 424/107, No. 104, Enclosure 3.
[58] Lynch, op. cit., II, p. 412.
[59] Lynch, op. cit., II, p. 151.
[60] Uras (1976), pp. 200ff.
[61] Paragraph 16 of Ayastefanos is: ‘Comme l’evacuation, par les troupes russes, des territoires qu’elles occupent en Armenie et qui doivent etre restitues a la Turquie, pourrait y donner lieu a des conflits et a des complications prejudiciables aux bonnes relations des deux pays, la Sublime Porte s’engage a realiser sans plus de retard les ameliorations et les reformes exigees par les besoins locaux dans les provinces habitees par les Armeniens et a garantir leur securite contre les Kurdes et les Circassiens.’
[62] F.O. 424/68, No. 639.
[63] F.O. 424/68, No. 644.
[64] F.O. 424/69, No. 214.
[65] Uras (1976), pp. 227—35; Leart, op. cit., pp. 28—30.
[66] F.O. 424/72, No. 10.
[67] F.O. 424/72, No. 99.



4 The Armenian question

[1] F.O. 424/76. No. 23 enclosure.
[2] F.O. 424/73, No. 261.
[3] F.O. 424/74, No. 388.
[4] Uras (1976) pp. 256—66.
[5] F.O. 424/74, No. 503.
[6] F.O. 424/76, No. 554.
[7] F.O. 424/98. No. 67.
[8] F.O. 424/106, No. 246 enclosure.
[9] F.O. 424/107, No. 2.
[10] The note was submitted in French. The French text may be found on pp. 32—7 of Marcel Leart’s book, its Turkish translation on pp. 287—93 of Esat Uras’ book.
[11] F.O. 424/107, No. 194.
[12] F.O. 424/123, No. 6.
[13] F.O. 424/123, No. 104, enclosure 2.
[14] F.O. 424/123, No. 75.
[15] F.O. 424/123, No. 113.
[16] F.O. 424/123, No. 126.
[17] F.O. 424/123, No. 180.
[18] F.O. 424/123, No. 215.
[19] F.O. 424/132, No. 22.
[20] Die Grosse Politik, Vol. 9, No. 2183.
[21] Ibid.
[22] F.O. 424/107, No. 194, enclosure 1
[23] F.O. 424/107, Nos. 185 and 212.
[24] F.O. 424/107, No. 213.
[25] F.O. 424/122, No. 1 enclosure.
[26] F.O. 424/122, No. 35.
[27] F.O. 424/122, No. 54, enclosure.
[28] F.O. 424/132, No. 36.
[29] F.O. 424/132, No. 101.
[30] F.O. 424/132, No. 143.
[31] Nalbandian (1963), p. 71.
[32] Uras (1976), p. 421.
[33] Nalbandian (1963), p. 94.
[34] Ibid, pp. 97—9.
[35] The Hunchak programme and organizational regulation may be found on pp. 432—9 of Uras’ book, as translated from the text published in Armenia in 1887 in London.
[36] Uras (1976), p. 441.
[37] Nalbandian (1963), p. 152.
[38] K. S. Papazian, Patriotism Perverted (Boston, 1934), p. 11.
[39] Naibandian (1963), p. 155.
[40] Papazian, op. cit., p. 14.
[41] Naibandian (1963), p. 168.
[42] Uras (1976), pp. 446—9.
[43] Papazian, op. cit., p. 17.
[44] See page 38, note 33.
[45] Price (1923), p. 77.
[46] William A. Langer, The Diplomacy of Imperialism, pp. 157—8.
[47] David G. Hogarth, A Wandering Scholar in the Levant (New York, 1896), pp. 147—50.
[48] Sir Mark Sykes, The Chaliph’s Last Heritage (London, 1915), pp. 409 and 416—18.
[49] Sir Edwin Pears, Forty Years in Constantinople (London, 1915), p. 155.
[50] C. F. Dixon-Johnson, The Armenians (Blackburn, 1916) pp. 24—5.
[51] Avetis Aharonian, ‘From Sardarapat to Sevres and Lausanne, The Armenian Review, September 1963, p. 53.
[52] See p. 119.
[53] Nalbandian (1963), p. 87.
[54] F.O. 424/145, No. 36.
[55] Nalbandian (1963), p. 100.
[56] Turkey, No. 1 (1889), No. 85, enclosure 3.
[57] Ahmet Hulki Saral, Ermeni Meselesi, pp. 78—9.
[58] Hazinei Evrak, Carton 312, File 64, circular dated 6/26/1890 of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
[59] Turkey No. 1 (1890—1), No. 66.
[60] Ibid, No. 106, enclosure.
[61] Nalbandian (1963), p. 118.
[62] Uras (1976), p. 463.
[63] Hazinei Evrak, Carton 310, File 56.
[64] Die Grosse Politik, Vol. 9, No. 2175.
[65] Nalbandian (1963), p. 119.
[66] Die Grosse Politik, Vol. 9, Nos. 2177 and 2178.
[67] Ibid.
[68] Turkey, No. 1 (1892), No. 3.
[69] F.O. 424/162, No. 54.
[70] Turkey, No. 3 (1896), No. 82.
[71] Nalbandian (1963), p. 120, n. 40.
[72] Edwin M. Bliss, Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities (Philadelphia, 1896), p. 337.
[73] Ibid, p. 344.
[74] Nalbandian (1963), p. 120.
[75] Turkey, No. 1 (1895) Part I. No. 252, p. 135.
[76] Hazinei Evrak, Müsir Zeki Pasha’s report, box 321, ffile 89.
[77] Rev. A. W. Williams, Bleeding Armenia (Publisher’s Union, 1896), p. 331.
[78] Bliss, op cit., pp. 370, 371.
[79] Pastermadjian (1949), p. 384.
[80] F.O. Turkey No. 1 (1895), No. 252, pp. 155—61.
[81] Ibid, No. 267, enclosure, p. 203.
[82] Nalbandian (1963), p. 123.
[83] AAEF—CP—Turquie, Vol. 524, Folio 39 and following.
[84] F.O. 424/184, No. 36.
[85] F.O. 424/184, No. 3.
[86] F.O. 424/184, No. 5.
[87] Hazinei Evrak, Carton 321, File 89, report dated September 21, 1311.
[88] Johannes Lepsius, L’Armenie et l’Europe (Lausanne, 1896), pp. 243Th.
[89] Die Grosse Politik, Vol. X, No. 2428.
[90] Turkey, No. 1 (1896), p. 359.
[91] Hazinei Evrak, Carton 314, File 76, report dated 11/4/1895, No. 16214/183.
[92] Hazinei Evrak, Carton 312, File 64, telegram dated October 9, 1311 of the gubernorate of Erzurum.
[93] Hazinei Evrak, Carton 314, File 76.
[94] Hazinei Evrak, Carton 312, File 68, circular dated 11/4/1895 No. 16225.
[95] Hazinei Evrak, Carton 321, File 89, telegram dated October 18, 1331 of the province of Erzurum, and Carton 312, File 64, circular No. 16336 dated 11/12/1895 of the department of Foreign Affairs.
[96] Hazinei Evrak, Carton 313, File 70, telegram dated 10/28/1311 of the province of Diyarbekir.
[97] Hazinei Evrak, Carton 302, Number 111, File 6, No. 74.
[98] Uras (1976), p. 488.
[99] Nalbandian (1963), pp. 68—9.
[100] Aghasi, Zeitoun, traduction d’Archag Tchobanian (Paris, 1897), p. 186.
[101] Lepsius, op. cit., p. 243.
[102] F.O. 424/184, No. 426.
[103] F.O. 424/184, Nos. 21 and 4.
[104] General Mayewski, Statistique des Provinces de Van et de Bitlis, pp. 33—9.
[105] Turkey, No. 8 (1896), No. 117, enclosure 1.
[106] Hazinei Evrak, Carton 313, File 69, circular dated 7/23/1896. (The dates refer to the old calendar; 13 days must be added.)
[107] F.O. 424/188, No. 174, enclosure 4.
[108] Uras (1976), pp. 509—11.
[109] Nalbandian (1963), pp. 176—7.
[110] F.O. 424/188, Nos. 149 and 169.
[111] F.O. 424/188, No. 190, enclosure 1.
[112] Papazian, op cit., p. 22.
[113] Uras (1976), pp. 523—4.
[114] Papazian, op. cit., p. 24.
[115] D. M. Lang, The Armenians, A People in Exile (London, 1981), p. 10.
[116] Pastermadjian (1949), p. 388.
[117] J. Missaskian, A Searchlight on the Armenian Question (Boston, 1950), p. 16.
[118] Turkey, No. 1 (1896), Nos. 1 and 2.
[119] Turkey, No. 1 (1896), No. 45 and enclosures.
[120] Turkey, No. 1 (1896), No. 65.
[121] Turkey, No. 1(1896), No. 71.
[122] Turkey, No. 1 (1896), No. 94.
[123] Die Grosse Politik, Vol. X, No. 2394.
[124] Ibid, No. 2396.
[125] Turkey, No. 1 (1896), No. 130, enclosure.
[126] Turkey, No. 1 (1896), No. 204 and enclosures.
[127] F.O. 424/189, No. 75.
[128] F.O. 424/189, No. 80.
[129] F.O. 424/189, No. 111.
[130] F.O. 424/189, No. 230.
[131] F.O. 424/220, No. 48, enclosure.
[132] Jemal Pasha, Hatiralar (Istanbul, 1959), pp. 345—6.
[133] F.O. 424/219, No. 83.
[134] USNA, 353/43, No. 87, 4016/13.
[135] F.O. 424/237, No. 8.
[136] Bayur, Vol. II, Part III, p. 31; Die Grosse Politik, Vol. 38, document 15284.
[137] Bayur, p. 33; Die Grosse Politik, Vol. 34, Part I, document 12737.
[138] Bayur, p. 35; Die Grosse Politik, Vol. 34, Part I, document 12725.
[139] Bayur, p. 37; Die Grosse Politik, Vol. 34, Part I, document 12744.
[140] F.O. 424/237, No. 38.
[141] Bayur, p. 108.
[142] Bayur, p. 116; Die Grosse Politik, Vol. 38, document 15344.
[143] Bayur, p. 169.
[144] Ibid, p. 178.



5 The First World War

[1] The Turkish text of this telegram may be found in Bayur, Vol. II, Part IV, p. 633, the German text in the German Archives, First World War, document 117, the English text in Ernest Jackh’s book, The Rising Crescent, p. 12.
[2] Uras (1976), pp. 576—7.
[3] Ibid, p. 581.
[4] Price (1923), p. 85.
[5] F.O. 371/3404, No. 162647, p. 4.
[6] K. S. Papazian, Patriotism Perverted (Boston, 1934), pp. 37—8.
[79 Hovhannes Kachaznuni, The Tashnaks Have Nothing More to do. paragraph 1. (It is known that this book, which was published in Armenia in 1923 by the Mekhitarian Printing Press in Vienna, was translated into English. Its record has been found in
investigations made in the national libraries of various countries, but it has been determined that both the English and Armenian versions of the book had been checked out and not returned. Finally, the copy in Armenian present in Turkey has been translated into Turkish, but we are unable to give the pages, as it is still in manuscript. Therefore we give the number of the paragraph.)
[8] Uras (1976), pp. 583—5.
[9] Aram Turabian, Les Volontaires Armeniens sous les Drapeaux Français (Marseilles, 1917), p. 6.
[10] Rafael de Nogales, Four Years Beneath the Crescent, English translation by Muna Lee (New York, 1926), p. 45.
[11] M. Philips Price, A History of Turkey (London, 1956), p. 91.
[12] Philippe de Zara, Mustapha Kemal, Dictateur (Paris, 1936), pp. 159—60.
[13] Price (1923), pp. 86—7.
[14] Felix Valyi, Revolutions in Islam (London, 1925), pp. 233—4.
[15] Genelkurmay, 1/13 1, KLS 2287, File 12, F. 1—10.
[16] USNA M—353/6, 867.00/761, p. 196.
[17] Genelkurmay, 4/3671, KLS 2818, File 59, F. 2—5.
[18] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2818, File 59, F. 2—10.
[19] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2811, File 26, F. 28.
[20] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2811, File 59, F. 2—19.
[21] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2818, File 59, F. 2—23.
[22] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2811, File 26, F. 15—1.
[23] Ibid. 4/3671, KLS 2818, File 59, F. 2—35.
[24] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2818, File 59, F. 2—36.
[25] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2818, File 59, F, 2—37.
[26] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2818, File 59, 2—43.
[27] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2820, File 69, F. 1—7.
[28] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2818, File 59, F. 2—54 and 2—55.
[29] Ibid, 1/2, KLS 4, File 23, A, F. 4.
[30] Ibid, 1/2, KLS 520, File 2024, F. 5.
[31] Dahiliye Nezareti Sifre Defteri, No. 48, 846—151214.4.
[32] Genelkurmay, 1/1, KLS 4, File 23, A, F. 5.
[33] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2820, File 69, F. 2—5 and 5—1.
[34] Ibid, 1/131, KLS 2287, File 12, F. 6—2.
[35] Ibid, 1/2, KLS 520, File 2024, F.11—1.
[36] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2818, File 59, F. 1—5.
[37] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2818, File 59, F. 1—17.
[38] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2818, File 59, F. 1—19.
[39] Ali Ihsan Sabis, Harp Hatiralarim (Ankara, 1951), Vol. 2, pp. 218, 219 and 205.
[40] Genelkurmay, 4/3671, KLS 2820, File 69, F. 3—4.
[41] Ibid, 1/1, KLS 44, File 207, F. 2.
[42] Ibid, 1/1, KLS 44, File 207, F. 2—1.
[43] Ibid, 1/2, KLS 13, File 63, F. 7.
[44] Ibid, 1/131, KLS 2287, File 12, F. 6.
[45] Ibid, 1/131, KLS 2287, File 12, F. 6—4.
[46] Ibid, 1/131, KLS 2287, File 12, F. 8.
[47] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2818, File 59, F. 1—37.
[48] Ibid, 1/131, KLS 2287, File 12, F. 6—16.
[49] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2820, File 69, F. 3—45.
[50] Ibid, 4/3671, KLS 2820, KLS, File 69, F. 3—82.
[51] F.O. Dossier 2484, document 22083.
[52] Oden Hedin, Bagdad, Babylon, Ninive (Leipzig, 1918), p. 70.
[53] USNA M-353/43, 867.4016/591/2, p. 658.
[54] Ibid, 867.4016/58, p. 651.
[55] Ibid, 867.4016/580, p. 655.
[56] Dahiliye Nezareti Emniyet Umum Müdürlü?ü, File 44, 844/51.
[57] Genelkurmay, 1/13 1, KLS 2287, File 12, F. 9.
[58] Ibid, 1/2, KLS 401, File 1580, F. 1—3.
[59] Ibid, 1/131, KLS 2287, File 12, F. 12—1.
[60] Ibid, 1/1, KLS 44, File 207, F.2—3.
[61] Bayur, Vol. III, Part 3, p. 37, taken from the minutes dated 30 May 1915 (17 May 1331) of the Council of Ministers.
[62] Ibid, p. 40.
[63] Ibid, pp. 40—2 (taken from the minutes of the Council of Ministers of 30 May 1915) (17 May 1331).
[64] Ibid, p. 46.
[65] Dahiliye Nezareti Evrak, Oda, ?if, Kal, File 53, 854/54.
[66] Ibid. File 53, 856/56.
[67] Ibid, File 53, 855/55.
[68] Ibid, File 53, 858/58.
[69] Ibid, File 53, 863/61.
[70] Ibid, File 53, 879/71.
[71] Ibid, File 53, 893177.
[72] Ibid, File 54, 864/62.
[73] Ibid, File 54, 887/72.
[74] Ibid, File 54, 892/16.
[75] Ibid, File 54, 895/19.
[76] Ibid, File 54, 904/83.
[77] Ibid, File 54, 915/20.
[78] Ibid, File 54, 917/88.
[79] Ibid, File 54, 920/90.
[80] Ibid, File 54, 925192.
[81] Ibid, File 54, 932/94.
[82] Ibid, File 54, 930/25.
[83] Ibid, File 69, 952/101.
[84] Ibid, 972/105.
[85] Hazinei Evrak, Box 178, File 23, memo No. 42746/146 of the Dahiliye Nezareti.
[86] Bayur, Vol. III, Part 3, p. 43.
[87] Genelkurmay, 1/2, KLS 361, File 1445, F. 15—22.
[88] Turabian, op cit., pp. 38—42.
[89] Uras (1976), p. 621.
[90] Hassan Arfa, The Kurds (London, 1968), pp. 25—6.
[91] Georges Boudiere, ‘Notes sur la Campagne de Syrie—Cilicie, L’Affaire de Maras’, Turcica, Vol. IX/2-X (1978), p. 160.
[92] F.O. Hc. 1/8008, XC/A—018055, p. 651.
[93] F.O. 371/6556/E.2730/800/44.
[94] Frank G. Weber, Eagles on the Crescent (Cornell University Press), pp. 150—2, 187.
[95] Bayur, Vol. III, Part 3, p. 22.
[96] Harry N. Howard, The King—Crane Commission (Beirut, 1963), p. 1.
[97] Bayur, Vol. III, Part 4, pp. 1—14.
[98] Harry N. Howard, op cit., p. 4.
[99] Bayur, Vol. III, Part 4, p. 121.
[100] To understand the Russian attitude on this subject, see Soviet Foreign Policy (Moscow, 1980), Vol. I, pp. 48—66.
[101] Bayur, Vol. III, Part 4, pp. 136—7.
[102] Kachaznuni, op. cit., paragraph 12.
[103] Twerdo Khebof, Journal de Guerre du 2eme Regiment d’Artillerie de forteresse Russe d’Erzeroum, et Notes d’un officier Superieur Russe sur les atrocites d’Erzeroum, Traduit du manuscrit original russe, 1919.
[104] Bayur, Vol. III, Part 4, p. 250.
[105] Celal Bayar, Ben de Yazdim (Istanbul, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 14.
[106] Kazim Karabekir, Istaklal Harbimiz (Istanbul, 1969), p. 1.
[107] Celal Bayar, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 24.
[108] Ibid, Vol. 4, p. 1346.
[109] Ibid, Vol. 5, p. 1429, n. 1.
[110] The original text of the order may be found in Celal Bayar, op. cit., Vol. 5, p. 1653.
[111] Ibid, Vol. 5, p. 1507.
[112] F.O. 371/4172, X/M 09394—29498.
[113] F.O. 371/4173, X/M 08936—47913.
[114] Celal Bayar, op. cit., Vol. 5, p. 1510.
[115] Falih Rifki Atay, Zeytindagi (Istanbul, 1938), p. 50.
[116] F.O. 371/6556/E.2730/800/44.
[117] Cemiyeti akvam ve Türkiye’deki Ermeni ve Rumlar, Dahiliye Nezareti Muhacirin Kalem Md, Ne?riyat No. 6 (Istanbul, 1922), p. 14.
[118] Halide Edip, The Turkish Ordeal (London, 1928), pp.16-18.
[119] F.O. 371/4172, X/M 09394/2391.
[120] F.O. 371/4172, X/M 09394/13694.
[121] F.O. 371/4172, X/M 09394/17682.
[122] F.O. 371/4172, X/M 09394/41632.
[123] F.O. 371/4173, XJM 08936/81368.
[124] F.O. 371/6504/09697/C.P. 3269.
[125] F.O. 371/4175, X/M 08794/163689.
[126] F.O. 371/4174/08992/1 18377.
[127] F.O. 371/4174/08992/129560.
[128] F.O. 371/6500/9456/E.3552.
[129] F.O. 371/6499/9558/E.1801.
[130] F.O. 371/6504/9697/E.8745.
[131] F.O. 371/6503/9647/E.6311.
[132] F.O. 371/6503/9647/E.631 1/132/44.
[133] F.O. 371/6504/9697/8519.
[134] F.O. 371/7874/20769/E.5516.
[135] F.O. 371/4174/08992/98910.
[136] F.O. 371/5090/9632.
[137] Bilal ?im?ir, Malta Sürgünleri (Istanbul, 1976).
[138] Laurence Evans, United States Policy and the Partition of Turkey, 1914—1924 (Baltimore, 1965), p. 30.
[139] Ibid, p. 29.
[140] Ibid, p. 55.
[141] Osman Olcay, Sevres Anla?masina dogru (Ankara, 1981).
[142] Lloyd George, The Truth About the Peace Treaties (London, 1938), Vol. 2.
[143] Ibid, Vol. 2, pp. 1255ff.
[144] Harry N. Howard, op. cit., pp. 211—2, 231.
[145] Maj. Gen. James G. Harbord, Report of the American Military Mission to Armenia, Senate Document No. 266 (1920), pp. 19, 24.
[146] Seha Meray-Osman Olcay, Osmanli Imparatorlugunun Çökü? Belgeleri (Ankara, 1977), p. 74.



6 The War of Independence

[1] Ataturk, Nutuk (Ankara, 1938), p. 6.
[2] Kazim Karabekir, Istiklal Harbimiz (Istanbul, 1969), p. 25.
[3] A. Rawlinson, Adventures in the Near East (New York, 1925).
[4] Robert Dunn, The World Alive (New York).
[5] AAEF—Levant 1918—29 (Armenie), Vol. 7, folio 99.
[6] Kachaznuni, op. cit., paragraphs 27, 28, 29, 30, 31.
[7] Kasim Ener, Cukurova Kurtulus Savasinda Adana Cephesi (Ankara, 1970), pp. 27—8.
[8] AAEF—Levant 1918—29 (Armenie) Vol. 1, folio 244.
[9] Ibid, Vol. 1, folio 245.
[10] Ibid, Volume 0, folio 12.
[11] Ibid, Vol. 2, folio 124.
[12] Ibid, Vol. 2, folio 332.
[13] Ibid, Vol. 6, folio 73.
[14] Ibid, Vol. 6, folio 62.
[15] Ibid, Vol. 7, folio 148.
[16] Ibid, Vol. 7, folio 216.
[17] Kaz?m Karabekir, op. cit., p. 370.
[18] Kasim Ener, op. cit., pp. 82—3.
[19] Kazim Karabekir, op. cit., p. 381.
[20] AAEF—Levant 1918—29 (Armenie) Vol. 8, folio 91.
[21] Ibid, Vol. 8, folio 180.
[22] Ibid, Vol. 8, folio 187.
[23] Ibid, Vol. 9, folio 10.
[24] Ibid, Vol. 9, folio 36.
[25] Ibid, Vol. 9, folio 65.
[26] The Minutes of the Secret Session of TBMM (the Turkish Grand National Assembly) on 1 May 1920.
[27] Atatürk, op, cit., pp. 324—6.
[28] Kasim Ener, op. cit., pp. 176—7.
[29] Atatürk, op. cit., pp. 443—7.
[30] Kasim Ener, op. cit., pp. 284—7. .
[31] The unpublished Bristol Report may be found in the Manuscripts Section of the Library of Congress of the USA.
[32] Arnold J. Toynbee, The Western Question in Greece and Turkey (New York, 1970), p. 284.
[33] AAEF—Levant 1918—29, Vol. 1, folio 162 and 173.
[34] Uras (1976), pp. 717ff.
[35] Joseph Grew, Turbulent Era (Boston, 1952), Vol. I, p. 483.
[36] Seha Meray, Lozan Bars Konferansi (Ankara, 1973), Section I, Vol. 1, Book 1, pp. 184Th.
[37] Uras (1976), quoting Hadissian, pp. 730—9.
[38] Seha Meray, op. cit., Section 1, Vol. 1, Book 2, p. 278.
[39] Joseph Grew, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 531.
[40] Doktor Riza Nur, Hayat ve Hatiratim (Istanbul, 1967), Vol. III, pp. 1062—3.
[41] Kachaznuni, op. cit., paragraph 35.
[42] Atatürk’ün Milli Di? Politikasi (Ankara, 1981), pp. 272—3.

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