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Sedat LANER, Asst. Prof. Dr.
27 April 2007 - Turkish Weekly
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.="justify">Israel in the 1970s and 1980s opposed the Armenian attempts to draw similarities between Holocaust and 1915 Relocation event, yet it made extreme efforts not to alienate the Armenians. Therefore all Israeli efforts to prevent the Armenians were secret and ‘behind the curtain’.[89] Naturally there has been a pro-Armenian group in Israel as well and this group does not share the official policy. However the pro-Armenian politicians are not strong enough to shift the official Israeli position and does not reflect the official view.

8r instance Yossi Sarid’s, Israel’s Education Minister, efforts resulted in including some Armenian claims in the national curriculum. Similarly Yossi Beilin, then Deputy Foreign Minister, had given support to the radical Armenians in April 1994. In the following years two Israeli ministers expressed their sympathy for the Armenian argument. However David Levy, the Israeli Foreign Minister, declared that the Israeli position regarding the issue was the same and the two minister’s statements on the issue in no way reflected the Israeli Government’s position, expressing his wish to maintain the already excellent relations with Turkey on every level. David Levy reiterated in his letter to his Turkish counterpart ?smail Cem that the Israeli government was clinging to its policy that the Armenian allegations should be discussed by historians, not by politicians or diplomats.[90]

In recent years the Israeli government’s attitude vis-à-vis Turkish and Armenians has changed and Israel has not hesitate to declare its opposition to the Armenian claims. The Nobel Peace Prize Awarded Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres for example declared that the Armenian political claims are meaningless.[91]
Peres in his speech in April left no doubt about that Israel has a similar view with the Turkish government on the question of the 1915 Relocation, saying that the fate of the Armenians in Anatolia was a ‘tragedy’, not a genocide.[92] Peres further continued:

‘Armenian allegations are meaningless… We reject attempts to create a similarity between the Holocaust and the Armenian allegations. Nothing similar to the Holocaust occurred. It is a tragedy what the Armenians went through but not a genocide... Israel should not determine a historical or philosophical position on the Armenian issue. If we have to determine a position, it should be done with great care not to distort the historical realities.’[93] (Emphasis added, s.l.)

Apart from the Armenian claims issue Peres underscored the good relations between the Turkish and Jewish peoples, and made special note of the esteem in which Turkey is held by the Jewish lobby in Washington. Peres having claimed ‘Turkey and Israel are in the same boat and Turkey-Israel relations are extremely good, said that he hoped the lobby would continue to lend support to Turkish causes.[94] Peres’ statement caused great reaction among the radical Armenians; The Asbarez, a periodical of a radical Armenian political group, labelled Peres and Israel as ‘denier’.[95] Haig Boyodjian from the same periodical protested Israel and further said ‘we Armenians in turn reject Israeli efforts at denying the reality of another genocide preceding theirs’.[96]

* Memorial Day: No Way to the Armenian Allegations

In addition to Shimon Peres’ statements the First Holocaust Memorial Day in Britain also provided clear proofs for the Jewish stance on the issue of the Armenian attempts to create parallel between the 1915 events and the Jewish Holocaust. When the British government with the BBC organised a Holocaust Memorial Day, the Armenian lobbying groups saw this as an opportunity although the focus of the day was solely the events in the World War Two. In spite of this the Armenian political groups accused the British government and claimed that the British simply ignored the Armenians. Nevertheless they applied to join the day as the ‘victims’ of, as they called, a genocide. As expected the Armenian application was turned down by the British Government and the BBC and the Armenian groups were informed by the Home Office that the memorial ceremonies were designed for the Holocaust only.[97] The representatives of the British Government frequently declared that the United Kingdom had never recognised the 1915 events as ‘genocide’ and its stance regarding the Armenian allegations remained the same.[98] Not only the British but also the Jewish people and Israel were unhappy with the Armenian political attempts. As discussed Shimon Peres clearly refused the Armenian claims while the British Jewish never supported the Armenian attempt. Turkey’s Jewish community also declared that inclusion of other ‘so-called genocides’ in the commemoration of Holocaust Memorial Day in Britain would be disrespectful to the Jews killed by the Nazis.[99]

* Israel: ‘No Parallels Between Holocaust and the 1915 Events’

As the examples demonstrated that Israel has made it clear its position about the Armenian allegations and officially and clearly rejected all Armenian attempts to present the 1915 Relocation as ‘genocide’. The most recent example came from the Israeli Ambassador to Armenian Rivka Kohen. Mrs. Kohen on 7 February 2002, during a press conference in Yerevan said that the Israeli people and government are sorry for the both sides of the tragic events of 1915, but she refused to draw any parallels between the 1915 events and Holocaust. Rivka Kohen implied that the 1915 events couldn’t be considered as ‘genocide’ because the mass killings in these events were not planned and the Turkish Government had no intention to destroy a nation or a group of people. As a well-known fact many people from the Armenian and Muslim groups had lost their life in these events. She further argued that Holocaust is unique:

‘Holocaust was a unique phenomenon, since it had always planned and aimed to destroy the whole nation. At this stage nothing should be compared with Holocaust.’[100]

The Armenian reaction to Kohen’s comment was bitter: First, Dzyunik Agadzhanyian from the Armenian Foreign Ministry said Kohen’s statements were “unusual and sad”:

‘It is sad that the political leadership of the nation which went through the Holocaust continues to adhere to such position, based on unclear political reasons’.[101]

Then, the Armenian Aryan party urged persona non grata status for the Israeli Ambassador. For the Aryan party, Kohen’s “pro-Turkish” statement was “cynical and interference in Armenia’s internal affairs”. Aryan’s press release declared Israel as “genocide denier” and claimed that Israel helps Turkey and Azerbaijan against Armenia.[102] After an anti-Israel campaign, Armenian Foreign Ministry had to change its ‘moderate’ position. On 15 February Dzyunik Agadzhanyan the spokeswoman for the Armenian Foreign Ministry gave an interview to the Armenian press and criticised Kohen and Israeli policy regarding the Armenian issue. Agadzhanyan told the reporter that the Armenian Foreign Minister strongly denounced Israeli Ambassador’s remarks:

Foreign Minister Vardan Oskanyan has unequivocally negatively assessed Ambassador Kohen’s statement. Earlier the Armenian Foreign Ministry also negatively assessed a similar statement by Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres. This time the Armenian foreign minister has again taken serious steps to express his dissatisfaction… It is really regrettable that Israeli diplomacy sticks to such a position, which stems from certain political considerations…’[103]

After the statement Armenian Foreign Ministry issued a note of protest to Israel over the Ambassador’s remarks[104] and the Ministry cancelled Oskanian’s official visit to Israel which had been planned before the Ambassador crisis as Ms. Ashjain said ‘at this moment no visit on the level of foreign affairs minister is planned to Israel, and no delegation is expected from Israel at this moment in Armenia.’[105] As expected Israel did not accept the accusations and Israeli Foreign Ministry released its answer to the Armenian note of protest:

‘As Jews and Israelis we are sorry for the killings and tragedies that took place particularly in 1915-16. We understand the outbursts of the feelings of both sides (Turks and Armenians - s.l.), know that there were many victims and realize the suffering of Armenia nation. The examination of this theme requires discussions with participation of large communities of society and dialogue of historians, which will be based on facts and proofs.’[106]

As anticipated this reply did not satisfy the Armenians and the Armenian press blamed Israel and accused the Israeli Foreign Ministry of ‘playing dirty political games’[107] In conclusion, Israel’s attitude regarding the Armenian allegation has deeply affected the relation between both states; on the one hand Armenia has insisted on its allegations and accused Turkey and Israel for their positions, on the other it has criticized Turks and Israelis for not to develop good relations with Armenia.
To conclude, the anti-Semitic attitudes among the Armenians, and the Armenian scepticism about Israel and the Jews are apparent. One of the reasons for this is obviously the historical thorny relations between the Armenians and the Jewish communities and the historically good relations between the Turkish and the Jewish peoples. However, much of the Armenian anti-Semitism and Armenian Jewish scepticism stems from the relatively good relations Israel, and the United States currently have with Turkey and Azerbaijan. According to the American, European and Israeli policy makers the priorities in the region are stability and the security. The energy routes are also important for these countries. The ‘unreliable states’ of the region, like Syria, Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan, are sources of conflict and the Western world needs partners to stabilise the region and to maintain the security of the energy routes. Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan in this framework provide the co-operation the West needs. On the other hand, Armenia’s aggressive foreign policy has stirred up the regional states; Armenia first of all supported the separatist Armenians in Nagorna Karabagh and occupied 20 percent of the Azerbaijani territories. It then opened its territories to the Russian military forces. Furthermore Armenia supported the separatist Armenians in Georgia and sought military and political operations with the ‘rough states’ of the region, namely Iran and Syria. Armenian policy makers also implied that they do not recognise the international borders drawn by the international agreements signed by the State of Armenia and the Soviet Union. As a result of all these aggressiveness the regional states (Georgia, Azerbaijan and Turkey) have sought cooperation possibilities in order to maintain stability in the region, and their efforts have been supported by the United States, United Kingdom, European Union and Israel. However many Armenian policy makers have perceived all these developments as a ‘Jewish and Turkish conspiracy’ instead of questioning their own foreign policy. The first victim of this foreign policy understanding was the Azerbaijanis and the other minorities in Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh region including the Jews. Although the existence of the Jewish community in Armenia dates back the first centuries the Armenian nationalists forced thousands of them to immigrate from the country and their number is now less than 500 families in whole country while the Azerbaijani population is now in Armenia almost ‘zero’. Apart from the minorities in Armenia, the ‘conspiracy’ theories have harmed Armenia itself. This tiny state with no natural resources has been isolated from the region, and now its relations with Israel and the US are damaged as a result of Armenia’s uncompromising attitude on the historical issues. In this context, it can be said that Armenia first of all must question its own policies before blaming the others for its isolation from the region and the world, and then make efforts to save today before the historical debates over the events happened about 100 years ago.

Appendix 1.

Copy of the Press Release Signed by the 11 American Jewish Organisations

“Eleven Jewish groups, representing the organized Jewish community in the United States, have welcomed the inclusion of language to the Senate Foreign Operations appropriations bill that will ease restrictions on US assistance to Azerbaijan, a critical American ally in the war against international terrorism.
In particular, the organizations commended Senator Sam Brownback (R-KS), a long-time advocate of US engagement in the Caspian region and Central Asia and the primary sponsor of the measure.
Section 907 of the Freedom Support Act, passed in 1992, precludes the United States, among other things, from accepting Azerbaijan’s offer to allow US military overflight rights and the use of its military bases, as well as access to medical facilities and intelligence cooperation. Secretary of State Colin Powell, writing on behalf of President Bush, stated recently that Section 907 “severely constrains our ability to provide most support to the Government of Azerbaijan including assistance needed to support our operations in the ongoing war against terrorism.”

The new language will enable the President of the United States to waive the restrictions, in the interests of the global war against terrorism, as well as to protect Azerbaijan’s border security.

In a letter to senators, the Jewish groups observed that an easing of Section 907 “advances America’s immediate defense needs and long-term strategic objectives in the Caspian Basin.... As such countries as Azerbaijan look to the West, it is incumbent upon the United States to engage them and their societies, to add credibility to their road toward democracy and promoting of human rights, and reduce any pressure from other powers – Iran in particular – that seek opportunities to expand strategic influence and instill a very different world view than our own.”

The governments of Azerbaijan and Israel have had productive bilateral relations for several years, thereby providing further evidence that moderate Muslim nations can enjoy friendly ties with the Jewish State. Azerbaijan’s recent announcements that it will open an embassy in Israel next year and the foreign minister’s planned visit to Israel are additional demonstrations of Baku’s staunch support of the Western world.

The organizations supporting this development are: Agudath Israel of America; American Jewish Committee; American Jewish Congress; Anti-Defamation League; B’nai B’rith International; Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations; Hadassah – The Women’s Zionist Organization of America; Jewish Council for Public Affairs; Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs; NCSJ: Advocates on behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia; and Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America.”

Journal of Turkish Weekly, Orginally published in 2004


[1] Golos Armenii, 5 August 1997.
[2] ‘Anti-Semitism in Armenia’, NCSJ Armenia Country Report, 2001.
[3] Stanford J. Shaw, The Jews of the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic, (New York: New York University Press, 1991), p. 84.
[4] Abraham Ben-Yakob, ‘The Immigration of Iraki Jews to the Holy Land in the 19th Century’, paper delivered in the First International Congress for Study of Sephardic and Oriental Judaism’, 27 June 1978, quoted in Stanford Shaw, Christian Anti-Semitism in the Ottoman Empire,
[5] For the examples see Shaw, The Jews..., p. 148.
[6] Shaw, The Jews..., p. 127.
[7] For the Jews in the Ottoman Empire and their relations with the state and the other millets see also: Stanford J. Shaw, The Jews...; Stanford J. Shaw, Turkey and the Holocaust, Turkey’s Role in Rescuing Turkish and European Jewry from Nazi Persecution, 1933-1945, (London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1993); B. Braude and B. Lewis (eds.), Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982), pp. 185-207; Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, (Princeton: 1984); C. H. Dodd, Nations in the Ottoman Empire: A Case Study in Devolution, Hull Papers in Politics, No. 18, University of Hull, April 1980; Uriel Heyd, ‘The Jewish Communities of Istanbul in the Seventeenth Century’, Oriens, Vol.: VI, 1953, pp. 299-314; M. Sevilla-Sharon, Türkiye Yahudileri (Turkey Jews), (Ankara: ?leti?im Yay?nlar?, 1991); Ahmet Hikmet Ero?lu, Osmanl? Devletinde Yahudiler (The Jews in the Ottoman State), (?stanbul: Alperen Yay?nlar?, 2001); Hakan Alkan, 500 Y?ll?k Serüven, Belgelerle Türkiye Yahudileri I (The 500-Years Adventure, Turkey Jews I), (?stanbul: Zvi-Geyik Yay?nlar?, 2000); Aron Rodrigue, Türkiye Yahudilerinin Bat?l?la?mas?, (The Westernisation of Turkey Jews), (?stanbul: Ayraç, 2001); Eva Groepler, ?slam ve Osmanl? Dünyas?nda Yahudiler (Jews in the Islamic and Ottoman World), (?stanbul: Belge, 1999); Avner Levi, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nde Yahudiler (The Jews in the Republic of Turkey), (Ankara: ?leti?im Yay?nlar?, 1998).
[8] Stanford J. Shaw, ‘Christian Anti-Semitism in the Ottoman Empire’, Belleten, Vol. LIV, No. 68, 1991, p. 1129.
[9] Shaw, The Jews..., p. 210.
[10] Guleryuz, ‘Turkiye Yahudileri Tarihi’ (The History of Turkey Jews), Salom, 19 November 1986.
[11] Ayhan Ozer, The Armenian-Nazi Collaboration in WWII,
[12] Public Record Office, F.O. 371/30031/R5337, quoted in Ozer, The Armenian...
[13] Ozer, The Armenian...
[14] Christopher J. Walker, Armenia: The Survival of a Nation, (London: 1980); The Times, 19 July 1941, p. 5, also see Sonyel, The Great..., p. 183.
[15] Walker quoted in Türkkaya Ataöv, Hitler and the “Armenian Question”, (Ankara: 1984).
[16] Ataöv, Hitler.., p. 91; Salahi Sonyel, The Great War and the Tragedy of Anatolia, (TTK, 2000), pp. 182-183.
[17] quoted in Ozer, The Armenian...
[18] Quoted in James G. Mandalian, Who Are The Dasnags, (Boston: Hairenik Press, 1944), pp. 13-14.
[19] Hairenik, 20 August 1936, quoted in Mandalian, Who…, pp. 13-14.
[20] For the medieval Jews see: Michael Nosonovsky, ‘Medieval Jewish Community in Eghegiz, Armenia’, Christian Orient, Vol. 1 (3), 1912 (translated. by; Lev Gorodetsky, ‘Mountain Jews in Jeopardy’, The Jerusalem Post, 31 October 2001; Kevin Alan Brook, ‘The Unexpected Discovery of Vestiges of the Medieval Armenian Jews’, The Sephardic Voice, No. 45, December 2001; Daphna Lewy, ‘The Lost Jews of Armenia’, Ha’aretz, 4 February 2001; Frank Brown, ‘Stones From The River’, The Jerusalem Report, 24 September 2001, pp. 44-45; Jacob Neusner, ‘The Jews in Pagan Armenia’, Journal Of The American Oriental Society, Vol. 84, 1964, pp. 239-240.
[21] Gorodetsky, ‘Mountain...’
[22] Although Azerbaijan had one of the oldest Jewish centres the economic crises forced the Jewish to move. Some went to Moscow, while some others to Israel: Gorodetsky, ‘Mountain...’.
[23] Daphna Lewy, ‘The Lost of Jews of Armenia Traces of a Previously Unknown Jewish Community Dating Back to the Middle Ages Have Been Discovered by Chance’, Ha’aretz, English version via net:;
[24] ‘The Jewish Community of Armenia History and Activities’,
[25] ‘Anti-semitism in Armenia’, NCSJ Armenia Country Report, 2001.
[26] At the end of the 1990s Armenian language campaign failed and some groups argued that Armenia needs other language notably Russian to develop itself in terms of economy and education. For a detailed debate see Susanna Petrosian, ‘Armenia’s Cultural Watershed’, IWPR, CRS No. 82, 14 May 2001.
[27] ‘Antisenitism in the Former Soviet Union and the Baltic Republics’, in Antisemitism Worldwide 1997/98, Tel Aviv; ‘Armenia’, in Antisemitism in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia, UCSJ Special Report, Union of Councils for Soviet Jews, via net,
[28] Sydney Galanty, ‘2,000 Strong Jewish Community in Armenia Struggles to retain Identity’, Armenian Mirror-Spectator, 27 June 1998.
[29] Igor Muradyan, Golos Armenii, April 1999; For the English version of Muradyan’s article see: ‘Armenia’, via net,
[30] Michael Danielian, ‘An Armenian Journalist Discusses “The Jewish Problem” in Armenia’, Express-Chronicle, 10 October 1997 (Translated into English by Lena Cochran, 5 November 1997 and edited by UCSJ).
[31] Mesropian, quoted in Danielian, ‘An Armenian...’.
[32] Golos Armenii, 5 August 1997.
[33] The movement’s leader is Vasgen Manukian. Manukian was the opposition candidate for president.
[34] Quoted in Danielian, ‘An Armenian...’.
[35] ‘Armenian Book Denies Holocaust’, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 18 February 2002.
[36] ‘Syria, Armenia Sign Defense Cooperation Deal’, Reuters, 27 August 2001.

[37] Marilyn Henry, ‘Armenia Asks Israel to Recognize Turkish Genocide’, The Jerusalem Post, 22 April 1999.

[38] Henry, ‘Armenia...’.

[39] For the example see Ayots Ashkar’s 23 September 2000 issue. For the English version of this Armenian newspaper see ‘Armenian Newspaper Says Jews Blackmailed the United States’, Union of Councils for Soviet Union,

[40] Not only the Armenians in Armenia but also some radical Armenians in diaspora and some other anti-Semitic groups argue that there is an ‘anti-Armenian Jewish conspiracy’ in the regions of Caucasus and Central Asia. Lyndon LaRouche, the American ‘presidential candidate for 2004’, who has close ties with the Armenian Americans in Los Angeles, claimed a Turkish-Israeli conspiracy in these regions. According to LaRouche’s statement published by the Armenian press the conspiracy is organised by the US and the UK:
“Freeman asks: ‘… Several Arabian newspapers recently published articles, which confirm that Israel secretly delivers military technology to Azerbaijan… during the visit of the Israeli Premier Ariel Sharon to Ankara, both sides discussed the issue of rendering joint assistance to Azerbaijan… Please comment on this situation.’
Lyndon H. LaRouche replies: ‘…The Israelis are part of that. They show up as parts of this operation (an operation by the US and the UK). It is not an Israeli conspiracy, nor an Israeli-Turkish conspiracy… So, therefore, you have a Turkish-Israeli involvement in Central Asia, which should be looked at as an Israeli conspiracy, or a Turkish-Israeli conspiracy, but as a reflection, through these two entities, of a more general operation, of the type which is the Clash of Civilisations type… obviously, the Israelis and the Turks have conspired. Well they didn’t really conspire; they were induced to conspire. They are simply auxiliaries of this Anglo-American, Utopian interest – the thing that I have to fight inside the United States… behind the Turkish operations, behind the Israeli operations there are larger forces.’” (For the details see LaRouche’s Campaign site or

[41] For the rise of Armenian separatist nationalism in Karabakh and the ethnic conflicts see: Kamer Kasim, ‘The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict, Caspian Oil and Regional Powers’, in Bülent Gökay (ed.), The Politics of Caspian Oil, (New York: Palgrave, 2001), pp. 185-198; Kamer Kasim, ‘The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict From Its Inception to the Peace Process’, Armenian Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, June-July-August 2001, pp. 170-185; S. E. Cornell, ‘Turkey and the Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh: A Delicate Balance’, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 34, No. 1, January 1998; Gerard Liberidian, The Karabagh File: Documents and Facts on the Region of Mountainous Karabagh, 1918-1988, (Cambridge: Zorian Institute, 1988); Michael P. Croissant, The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict, Causes and Implications, (London: Praeger, 1998); Paul A. Goble, ‘Coping With the Nagorno-Karabakh Crisis’, Flatcher Forum of World Affairs, 16, 2, Summer, 1992; Tim Potier, Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia : A Legal Appraisal, (Kluwer Law International, 2000).

[42] Steve Swerdlow, ‘The Forgotten Jews of Karabakh’, IWPR, CRS No. 85, 14 June 2001.

[43] ibid.

[44] Russia provided military equipments, and significant Russian troops joined the war on the Armenian side. Russia’s Minister of CIS Affair Aman Tuleyev and defence Minister Rodionov admitted this support by conforming that 84 T-72 tanks and 50 armoured personnel carriers, 24 Scud missiles and other military equipment had been given to Armenia: Kasim, ‘The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict From…’, p. 180; Martin Sieff, ‘Armenia Armed by Russia for Battles with Azerbaijan’, The Washington Times, 10 April 1997, p. 11.

[45] Swerdlow, ‘The Forgotten...’.

[46] ibid.

[47] Hagop Chakrian, ‘US Promotes Turkey’s Anti-Armenian Policy’, Asbarez, 27 July 2001.

[48] Mikael Danielian, ‘An Armenian Journalist Discusses “The Jewish Problem” in Armenia, Express-Cronicle, 11 May 1997, (Trans. By Lena Cochran) translated in ‘Report From Yerevan’, Union of Councils for Soviet Jews News Report, 12 November 1997.

[49] For anti-Semitism and its religious roots see also: David I. Kertzer, The Popes Against The Jews: The Vatican’s Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-semitism, (2001); Sidney G. Hall, Christian Anti-Semitism and Paul’s Theology, (2000); Judith Taylor Gold and Joseph Gold (eds.), Monsters and Madonnas: The Roots of Christian Anti-Semitism, (New York: Syracuse University Press, 1999); Rosemary Ruetether, Faith and Fratricide: The Theological Roots of Anti-semitism, (New York: Seabury Press, 1971); David M. Szonyi (ed.), The Holocaust: An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide, (New York: KTAV for the National Jewish Research Center, 1985); Turkkaya Ataov, ‘The Jewish Holocaust and the Armenians’, in Türkkaya Ataöv (ed.), Armenians in the Late Ottoman Period, (Ankara: 2001), pp. 314-344.

[50] ‘When They Say Jewish They Understand The Representative of the West’ article which was published on 13 May 1997 in The Ajzhn daily is a good example for this perception. For the English version of this article see: Mikael Danielian, Express-Chronicle (Lena Cochran), via UCSJ, ‘An Armenian Journalist Discusses “The Jewish Problem” in Armenia’, Union of Councils for Soviet Jews, 12 November 1997.

[51] Gayane Novikova, ‘Armenia and the Middle East’, MERIA, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 4 (4), December 2000.

[52] As known Azerbaijani people are ethnically Turkish and speak Turkish language similar to the Turks in Turkey.

[53] Sibel Ye?ilmen, ‘Back to Square One in Clandestine Flirt’, Diplomacy Papers, June 1998, p. 30.

[54] ?lnur Çevik, ‘Ankara Hopeful About the Future of Ties with Armenia’, Turkish Daily News, 4 November 1999.

[55] Country Review Armenia 2001, (Texas: CountryWatch, 2000), pp. 16-18.

[56] Caspar W. Weinberger and Peter Schweizer, ‘Russia’s Oil Grab’, The New York Times, 12 May 1997.

[57] Country..., p. 20.

[58] Ye?ilmen, ‘Back...’, p.31.

[59] Most of the Armenians believe that the Ottoman Turks massacred 1.5 million Armenians as a state policy, and they named these events happened in 1915 as the ‘first genocide of the 20th century, while the Turks refuse all these claims. The Turkish people argue that they did not massacred the civilian Armenians. For the Turkish argument, ‘the Ottoman territories, surrounded by war, had lost its peace and order as a result of the Armenian revolts, which broke out one after other, and by famine and epidemics. The gangs struck, these attacks were retaliated, and blood was shed everywhere. Under these circumstances, compulsory immigration was decreed, resulting in the death of thousands civil Armenians, including women, men and children’ (Gürsel Göncü, ‘The Tragedy of Hundreds of Thousands’, Atlas, June 2001, p.68). The Ottoman government punished several officials who acted negligently, even some of them were sent to prison. The Government admitted that its officers and civil servants failed to implement the project properly. However none of the Government members were anti-Armenian or racist and as proved by many researchers the Government did not intend to massacre or genocide a people. As a result of the events occurred in the last years of the Ottoman Empire, thousands of Turkish were killed by the Armenian bands while the Kurdish bandit attacks and the war circumstances with the epidemic diseases caused thousands of casualties in the Armenian side. For the details see: Mim Kemal Öke, The Armenian Question, 1914-1923, (Oxford: University Printing House, 1988); Türkkaya Ataöv (ed.), The Armenians in the Late Ottoman Period, (Ankara: TTL, 2001); Salahi Sonyel, The Great War and the Tragedy of Anatolia, Turks and Armenians in the Maelstrom of Major Powers, (Ankara: TTK, 2001); McCarthy, ‘The Anatolian Armenians, 1912-1922’, in Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, (Istanbul: 1984), pp. 17-25.

[60] Gayane Novikova, ‘Armenia and the Middle East’, Meria, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 4 (4), December 2000.

[61] Efraim Inbar, ‘Regional Implications of the Israeli–Turkish Strategic Partnership’, Meria, Vol. 5 (2), June 2001. For Israel-Turkey co-operation also see Andrew I. Killgore, ‘Consequences of the Israel-Turkey Alliance, The Israel-Iran Alliance Failed: Can Israel and Turkey Fare Any Better?’, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, March 2000; Raphael Israeli, The Turkish-Israeli Odd Couple’, Orbis, 2001, pp. 65-79; Hakan Yavuz, ‘Turkish-Israeli Relations Through the Lens of the Turkish Identity Debate’, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1997, pp. 22-37; Amikam Nachmani, ‘The Remarkable Turkish-Israeli Ties’, Middle East Quarterly, June 1998; Neil Lochery, ‘Israel and Turkey: Deepening Ties and Strategic Implications, 1995-98’, Israel Affairs, 5 (5), Fall 1998; George Gruen, ‘Dynamic Progress in Turkish-Israeli Relations’, Israel Affairs, 1 (4); Daniel Pipes, ‘The Emerging Turkish-Israeli Entente’, The National Interest, Winter 1997/98; Don Waxman, ‘Turkey and Israel: A New Balance of Power in the Middle East’, The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Winter 1999), pp. 25-32; Alan Gresh, ‘Turkish-Israeli-Syrian Relations and Their Impact on the Middle East’, Middle East Journal, 52 (2), Spring 1998; John Tirman, ‘The Ankara-Jerusalem Axis’, Nation, 1 April 1999, Vol. 268 (1); Anat Lewin, ‘Turkey and Israel’, Journal of International Affairs, Fall 2000, Vol. 54 (1); Gil Dibner, ‘My Enemy’s Enemy’, Harvard International Review, Winter 1998/1999, Vol. 21 (1); Stanley K. Sheinbaum, ‘Israel Plays Turkey’, NPQ, New Perspectives Quarterly, Summer 1996, Vol. 13 (3); Kamer Kas?m, ‘Türkiye-?srail ?li?kileri: ?ki Bölgesel Gücün Stratejik Ortakl???’ (Turkey-Israel Relations: The Strategic Co-operation of Two Regional Powers), in ?dris Bal (ed.), Türk D?? Politikas? (Turkish Foreign Policy), (Ankara: Alfa, 2001).

[62] For the Arab states’ response see: ‘Turkish-Israeli Links Criticized’, Jane’s Defence Weekly, 2 July 1997; Efraim Inbar, ‘Regional Implications of the Israeli-Turkish Strategic Partnership’, Meria Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2001; Andrew Borowiec, ‘Arab Nations Decry Turkey’s Israel Ties’, The Washington Post, 1 June 2001; Nadia E. El-Shazly, ‘Arab Anger at New Axis’, World Today, January 1999, Vol. 55, No. 1.

[63] Iran condemned Turkey’s closeness to Israel and claimed that Turkey’s friendly relations with this country would provoke the feelings of the Islamic world: ‘Iran Condemns Turkey, Israel, US Naval Exercises’, Asbarez, 16 January 2001. For Iran-Armenia partnership see: ‘Kocharian Says Iran One of Armenia’s Principal Trade Partners’, Asbarez, 18 April 2001; ‘Iran, Armenia Reconfirm Close Ties’, Asbarez, 17 July 2001.

[64] Robert D. Kaplan argues that ‘a real battle has commenced’ and ‘on one side are the Turks, their fellow Azeri Turks in Azerbaijan, the Israelis and the Jordanians’ while on the other side are Armenians, Syrians, Iraqis, Kurds and Greeks: Robert D. Kaplan, ‘Redrawing the Middle East Map’, The New York Times, 21 February 1999.

[65] Haik Marcar, ‘2000-Forgotten Jews in a Country Forsaken By The Nabobs of the Media and the Barons of Finance!’,

[66] For Syria-Armenia cooperation see: ‘Syria, Armenia Sign Defense Cooperation Deal’, Reuters, 27 August 2001; ‘Armenian-Syrian Cooperation to be Expanded’, Asbarez, 24 August 2001; ‘Syria Sends Assistance to Armenia’, Asbarez, 4 October 2001; ‘Armenian-Syrian Political & Economic Relations Can Improve’, Noyan Tapan, 11 February 2002; ‘Syria’s President Ratified Syrian-Armenian Agreement’,; ‘Armenia Cozies Up To Russia, Syria and Iran’, Weekend Passport, 11 September 1997, Vol. 4, No. 27. For Greece-Armenia co-operation see: ‘Armenia and Greece to Increase Military Cooperation’, GIU, Global Intelligence Update, 16 July 1997.

[67] Patrick Goodenough, ‘Armenia Seeks Recognition of “Genocide”, Conservative News Service, 23 April 1999.

[68] Armenian news agency Mediamax claimed that Israel’s Ambassador to Armenia Rivka Kohen told the Armenians ‘Iran factor’ is the key reason for the weak relations between Israel and Armenia: Miramax, 15 February 2002.

[69] Anar Veliev, ‘The Israel-Turkey-Azerbaijan Triangle: Present and Future’, Central Asia and the Caucasus, No. 2, 2000.

[70] For a detailed history of Section 907 see: Araz Aslanl?, ‘ABD’de Adaletsizli?e Verilen Ara: 907 Say?l? Ek Madde’nin Uygulanmas?n?n Durdurulmas?’ (A Pause to an Unjust Decision: Repeal of Section 907), Stratejik Analiz, Vol. 2, No. 21, January 2002, pp. 55-62.

[71] For the press release of these 11 organisations and the copy of the letter signed by them and sent to the senators see Appendix1 and 2.

[72] ‘Anti-Semitism in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia’, UCSJ Special Report, 25 August 1999.

[73] Jane Hunter, ‘Israel and Turkey: Arms for Azerbaijan’, Middle East International, 23 October 1992, p. 12.

[74] For that claim see Nezevisimaya Gazeta, 4 December 2001. For its Turkish version: ‘?srail-Türkiye-Azerbaycan’, AZG Armenian Daily, 6 December 2001.

[75] The principal foreign investors in Georgia are: Israel, Turkey, Ireland, United States, Korea, Germany, Great Britain, Netherlands and Russia: Fact Sheet: Republic of Georgia, 1 August 2001,

[76] The other main partners are: Turkey, Russia, Germany, Azerbaijan, United States, Ukraine, Switzerland, and Italy. Georgia’s Ten Largest Trading Partners, 2000, http://web.sanet/mospm/News/announcement.htm.

[77] Novikova, ‘Armenia...’.

[78] RFE / RL 5-18.

[79] Mehriban Babazade, ‘National Interests in Formation of Contemporaray Azerbaijani Foreign-Policy Concept’,

[80] ‘Dr. Yair Auron Responds to Shimon Peres’ Statements’, Asbarez, 18 April 2001.

[81] Marilyn Henry, “Armenia Asks Israel to Recognize Turkish Genocide”, The Jerusalem Post, 22 April 1999.

[82] Yair Auron, The Banality of Indifference, (New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers, 2000), p. 352.

[83] Israel Charny, ‘The Conference Crisis. The Turks, Armenians and the Jews’, in The Book of the International Conference on the Holocaust and Genocide. Book One: The Conference Program and Crisis, (Tel Aviv: 1982); on, The Banality..., pp. 354-355; Leora Eren Fruncht, ‘A Tragedy Offstage No More’, The Jerusalem Post, 15 June 2000. Also see: Amos Elon, ‘Their Holocaust’, Har’aretz, 11 June 1982; Yad Vashem, ‘We and the Armenians’, Ha’aretz, 29 June 1982; Israel Amrani, ‘A Little Help for Friends’, Ha’aretz, 20 April 1990; Norman G. Finkelstein, The Holocaust Industry, Reflections on Exploitation of Jewish Suffering, (Verso Books, 2001), Chapter 2.

[84] Auron, The Banality.... Also see: Yoav Karni, ‘Battle of Politicos Over the Armenian Holocaust’ Ha’aretz, 27 October 1989.

[85] Auron, The Banality..., p. 356.

[86] Yoav Karni, ‘Battle of the Politicos Over the Armen?an Holocaust’, Ha’aretz, 27 October 1989.

[87] Leora Eren Fruncht, ‘A Tragedy Offstage No More’, The Jerusalem Post, 15 June 2000.

[88] Kol Haeir, 22 June 1990, quoted in Auron, The Banality..., p. 359.

[89] For the details of these examples see: Patrick Goodnough, ‘Armenia Seeks Recognition of “Genocide”, Conservative News Service, 23 April 1999,; Leora Eren Fruncht, ‘A Tragedy Offstage No More’, The Jerusalem Post, 12 May 2000.

[90] ‘Levy Clarifies Israeli Policy On Alleged Armenian Genocide’, People’s Daily, 26 May 2000; Turkish Daily News, 25 May 2000.

[91] Haig Boyodjian, ‘Peres Claims Armenians Did Not Experience Genocide’, Asbarez, 10 April 2001; ‘Israeli Opposition Leader Mr/ Yossi Sarid Attends Memorial Service: He Addresses Commemorative Rally at the Armenian Convention Jaffa’, The Armenian National Committee of Jerusalem, 25 April 2001.

[92] Thomas Patrick Carroll, ‘Ankara’s Strategic Alignment with Tel Aviv: Implications for Turkey and the Region’, Middle East Intelligence Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 5, May 2001.

[93] ‘Peres: Armenian Allegations are Meaningless’, Turkish Daily News, 10 April 2001; Boyodjian, ‘Peres...’

[94] Carroll, ‘Ankara’s…; Boyodjian, ‘Peres...’

[95] ‘Dr. Yair Auron responds to Shimon Peres’ Statements’, Asbarez, 18 April 2001.

[96] Boyodjian, ‘Peres...’.

[97] Independent, 22 November 2000.

[98] Sedat Laçiner, ‘Armenian Diaspora in Britain and the Armenian Question’, Armenian Studies, Vol. 1, No:: 3, September-October-November 2001, pp. 223-257; Ara Sarafian, Denial of the Armenian Genocide by the British Government, a lecturer delivered in London on 24 March 2001, organised by the Socialist History Society.

[99] ‘Rabbi in Turkey Says Jews Only at UK Holocaust Day’, Asbarez, 26 January 2001.

[100] ‘Israeli Ambassador Says No Parallels Between Holocaust and 1915 Genocide’, Asbarez, 8 February 2002 and National Television of Armenia, 9 February 2002 (via Groong).

[101] Avet Demourian, ‘Armenian Radical Party Calls For Declaring Israeli Envoy Persona Non Grata’, Associated Press, 12 February 2002.

[102] ‘Armenian Party Urges Persona Non Grata Status For Israeli Envoy’, Arminfo, 11 February 2002; Demourian, ‘Armenian...’.

[103] ‘Oskanyan Reacts Negatively To Ambassador Kohen’s Statement’, Iravunk (Armenian daily), 15 February 2002 (For English version see: Groong, 15 February 2002).

[104] Press Release, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia, 15 February 2002; ‘Armenia Files Complaint With Israel Over Comments On Genocide’, Ha’aretz, 17 February 2002; ‘Armenia Protests To Israel Over Envoy’s Genocide Comments’, Agence France Press, 16 February 2002.
[105]; ‘Armenian Foreign Minister Not To Visit Israel In Near Future’, ArmenPress News Agency, 15 February 2002; ‘Foreign Ministry Sends Protests to Israel’, Asbarez, 15 February 2002.
[106] Press Release, The Israeli Foreign Ministry, 18 February 2002.
[107] Rouzan Poghosian, ‘Diplomatic Incident: Israeli Foreign Ministry Answers Armenia’a Protest Notes’, AZG Armenian Daily, 19 February 2002.

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